Total Solution for the GED Test - REA

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Total Solution

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Laurie Callihan, Ph.D. Stacey Kiggins, M.S. Lisa Gail Mullins, M.A. Stephen Reiss, M.B.A.

Research & Education Association

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REA’s Total Solution for the GED® test Copyright © 2014 by Research & Education Association, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America Library of Congress Control Number 2013946198 ISBN-13: 978-0-7386-1135-8 ISBN-10: 0-7386-1135-2 LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: Publication of this work is for the purpose of test preparation and related use and subjects as set forth herein. While every effort has been made to achieve a work of high quality, neither Research & Education Association, Inc., nor the authors and other contributors of this work guarantee the accuracy or completeness of or ­assume any liability in connection with the information and opinions contained herein and in REA’s software and/or online materials. REA and the authors and other contributors shall in no event be liable for any personal injury, property or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whether special, indirect, consequential or compensatory, directly or indirectly resulting from the publication, use or reliance upon this work. All trademarks cited in this publication are the property of their respective owners. Cover image: © Thinkstock/iStockphoto





REA® is a registered trademark of Research & Education Association, Inc. E14

Practice Tests • Reasoning Through Language Arts • Mathematical Reasoning • Science • Social Studies

REASONING THROUGH LANGUAGE ARTS Reading Section 40 questions Entire Language Arts test is 150 minutes with a 10-minute break.

Read the following excerpt from Thomas de Quincey’s essay, “The Vision of Sudden Death.” What is to be thought of sudden death? It is remarkable that, in different conditions of society it has been variously regarded as the consummation of an earthly career most fervently to be desired, and, on the other hand, as that consummation which is most of all to be deprecated. Caesar the Dictator, at his last dinner party, (cœna,) and the very evening before his assassination, being questioned as to the mode of death which, in his opinion, might seem the most eligible, replied — “That which should be most sudden.” On the other hand, the divine Litany of our English Church, when breathing forth supplications, as if in some representative character for the whole human race prostrate before God, places such a death in the very van of horrors. “From lightning and tempest; from plague, pestilence, and famine; from battle and murder, and from sudden death, — Good Lord, deliver us.” Sudden death is here made to crown the climax in a grand ascent of calamities; it is the last of curses; and yet, by the noblest of Romans, it was treated as the first of blessings. (In that difference, most readers will see little more than the difference between Christianity and Paganism. But there I hesitate. The Christian church may be right in its estimate of sudden death; and it is a natural feeling, though after all it may also be an infirm one, to wish for a quiet dismissal from life — as that which seems most reconcilable with meditation, with penitential retrospects, and with the humilities of farewell prayer. There does not, however, occur to me any direct scriptural warrant for this earnest petition of the English Litany. It seems rather a petition indulged to human infirmity, than exacted from human piety. And, however that may be, two remarks suggest themselves as prudent restraints upon a doctrine, which else may wander, and has wandered, into an uncharitable superstition. The first is this: that many people are likely to exaggerate the horror of a sudden death, (I mean the objective horror to him who contemplates such a death, not the subjective horror to him who suffers it,) from the false disposition to lay a stress upon words or acts, simply because by an accident they have become words or acts. If a man dies, for instance, by some sudden death when he happens to be intoxicated, such a death is falsely regarded with peculiar horror; as though the intoxication were suddenly exalted into a blasphemy. But that is unphilosophic. The man was, or he was not, habitually a drunkard. If not, if his intoxication were a solitary accident, there can be no reason at all for allowing special emphasis to this act, simply because through misfortune it became his final act. Nor, on the other hand, if it were no accident, but one of his habitual transgressions, will it be the more habitual or the more a transgression, because some sudden calamity, surprising him, has caused this habitual transgression to be also a final one? Could the man have had any reason even dimly to foresee his own sudden death, there would have been a new feature in his act of intemperance — a feature of presumption and irreverence, as in one that by possibility felt himself drawing near to the presence of God. But this is no part of the case supposed. And the only new element in the man’s act is not any element of extra immorality, but simply of extra misfortune.

1. What is the main idea in this text? A. Death, of any method, is horrible. C. The positive or negative qualities of sudden death are debatable. D. Sudden death is preferable to slow death.

Practice Test

B. Slow death is preferable to sudden death.

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2. What can you infer about the relationships presented in this text? A. Religion and philosophy agree about the preferential nature of sudden death. B. There is a conflicting viewpoint about death from philosophy and religion. C. Alcohol and death are matters that seem to go hand in hand. D. A pious life determines whether a person will die suddenly or slowly. 3. What is the meaning of the word prostrate ? A. Vertically positioned B. In arms against C. Angrily opposing D. At the mercy of 4. What role does the sentence “What is to be thought of sudden death?” play in the development of the purpose of this text? A. It forces the reader to question this for themselves. B. It lays the premise for the rest of the paragraph’s development of the scope of this idea. C. It lays out the author’s direction of his opinion that sudden death is preferable. D. It implores a more knowledgeable person to answer the question. 5. Which claim is NOT supported by reason? A. “Sudden death is here made to crown the climax in a grand ascent of calamities; it is the last of curses; and yet, by the noblest of Romans, it was treated as the first of blessings.”

Reasoning Through Language Arts

B. “There does not, however, occur to me any direct scriptural warrant for this earnest petition of the English Litany.”

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C. “The first is this: that many people are likely to exaggerate the horror of a sudden death, (I mean the objective horror to him who contemplates such a death, not the subjective horror to him who suffers it,) from the false disposition to lay a stress upon words or acts, simply because by an accident they have become words or acts.” D. “If a man dies, for instance, by some sudden death when he happens to be intoxicated, such a death is falsely regarded with peculiar horror; as though the intoxication were suddenly exalted into a blasphemy.”

6. Which sentence best supports the main idea of this passage? A. “It is remarkable that, in different conditions of society it has been variously regarded as the consummation of an earthly career most fervently to be desired, and, on the other hand, as that consummation which is most of all to be deprecated.” B. “. . . being questioned as to the mode of death which, in his opinion, might seem the most eligible, replied — “That which should be most sudden.” C. “From lightning and tempest; from plague, pestilence, and famine; from battle and murder, and from sudden death, — Good Lord, deliver us.” D. “And the only new element in the man’s act is not any element of extra immorality, but simply of extra misfortune.” 7. How would the tone of the sentence, “It seems rather a petition indulged to human infirmity, than exacted from human piety.” differ if the word “infirmity” were to be replaced with the word “suffering”? A. By replacing “infirmity” with the weaker word “suffering,” the tone would seem more in favor of the English Litany’s position. B. By replacing “infirmity” with the stronger word “suffering,” the tone would seem more in favor of the English Litany’s position. C. By replacing “infirmity” with the stronger word “suffering,” the tone would seem more condemnation for the English Litany’s position. D. There would be no change in tone. Consider the following two articles, “As Food Imports Rise, So Do Safety Concerns” and “Two Concerns Addressed with One Stone” to answer the following questions. As Food Imports Rise, So Do Safety Concerns From New Zealand lamb to Mexican papaya and Colombian coffee, your local grocery store provides a truly international experience. And while plantains, eddoes and avocados expand culinary horizons, importing these foods raises legitimate safety concerns. Americans rely heavily on imported food — the U.S. now imports nearly 85 percent of its fish consumption, and fruit and vegetable imports have doubled since 1998. Even products made in the United States may contain foreign products, such as Chinese wheat gluten or Mexican green onions. And while many countries enforce safety standards equal to those used in the U.S., newly industrialized or industrializing nations may not have the resources or infrastructure to meet safety and quality benchmarks.

Practice Test 7

Unfortunately, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) cannot pick up the slack. The FDA reports that, due to its own lack of resources, 99 percent of the imports that enter the U.S. are not inspected. Experts agree that prevention, not inspection, will best ensure food safety. One life sciences company, Global Food Technologies, Inc., has developed an organic processing method that ensures that foods do not become contaminated during processing or packaging. By destroying the microbes in the food without harmful chemicals, the company achieves higher safety standards than the minimum required by law. The processing method, designated by the iPura brand name, is currently being used to produce seafood in several overseas nations. Any product bearing the iPura label is guaranteed to be a result of its comprehensive Source-to-Retail food safety program. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that 325,000 Americans are hospitalized and 5,000 die annually from foodborne illnesses. A food company that does not adhere to food safety practices will eventually be driven out of business, a fact that tends to encourage good practices and results in a relatively safe food supply. Yet, reports of new outbreaks continually surface, indicating that more work must be done to safeguard the food supply.

Two Concerns Addressed with One Stone A global recession has a wearied public in its grip as consumers tighten their belts. Policymakers are engaging in a fierce battle for short-term and long-term solutions while ordinary Americans go about their daily lives with hopes that the situation won’t get any worse.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

Nearly one trillion dollars has been injected into the faltering system, but immediate success has yet to materialize. Fears about the sagging pocketbook are coupled with feelings of insecurity about the safety and quality of products being imported from overseas, especially the food being imported into the U.S. at an unprecedented rate. Americans currently import over 80 percent of seafood meals consumed, while statistics indicate that seafood is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses. With the FDA able to inspect less than one percent of the shipments into U.S. ports, consumers have expressed deep concern about the safety of their families.

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A California-based life sciences company, Global Food Technologies (GFT), is primed to take advantage of the current economic situation by offering its first product into the market, iPura. The first of its kind, iPura is a food-safety company with a unique approach combining technological hardware and methods with trained technicians to ensure that the very highest standards have been implemented in the delivery of seafood imported from overseas. Including an organic “clean step” that reduces disease-causing pathogens, iPura escorts the product from foreign-based factories to the U.S.-held fork with a seal of authenticity that includes temperature monitoring, traceability, and full transparency for the consumer.

“iPura instills confidence in foreign-sourced seafood by giving consumers the peace of mind they deserve,” says President of GFT Keith Meeks. With the wild volatility of most sectors on Wall Street, household goods and staples have not fallen as much as the others, reflective of the trend for consumers to take care of essentials before discretionary purchases such as electronic goods and new automobiles. As food safety has become a major concern for food company executives, with 84 percent in a recent survey stating that food safety is their main priority, iPura offers investors a chance to profit in a time of uncertainty and economic downturn by meeting market demand.

8. What thematic idea do these two articles share? A. Foods imported from other countries can be dangerous to Americans’ health. B. The economic crisis has caused Americans to import more foods. C. Imported foods make up the vast majority of our diet. D. Americans cannot produce their own foods fast enough to make enough produce to feed themselves without relying on imports. 9. Short Answer: Both articles use the same facts, but the statistic presented is different. What are the possible reasons for this and what effect does it have?

10. What is one point about which the authors would disagree? A. Imports are responsible for our failing economy. B. Imports have a role in many of our health problems. C. The biggest factor dealing with imported foods is the economy. D. America should do more to increase its own food production.

Practice Test 9

11. How does the impact of these two pieces differ? A. The first article encourages readers to buy organic foods, while the second article urges readers to consider more healthfully treated foods. B. The first article broadens the scope of imports to many kinds of foods, whereas the second article simply deals with seafood. C. The first article urges Americans to be more health conscious, while the second encourages us to be more fiscally conservative. D. The first article informs readers of the potential impacts of imported food on our health, and the second encourages readers to seek other solutions. 12. How is the idea of iPura differently emphasized in these two articles? A. The first article uses it as a scare tactic, while the second article examines the role it can play in ensuring American safety. B. The first article discusses iPura as a business model, while the second discusses its beneficial qualities as a scientific endeavor. C. The first article mentions it as a new method to ensure safety, and the second article furthers this by using it as a vehicle for helping our failing economy. D. The first article examines it as a business model, and the second article uses it to emphasize the dangers of imported foods. 13. What is the purpose of the first article? A. To warn Americans about the potential hazardous impacts of imported foods. B. To discuss the beneficial qualities of the company iPura. C. To encourage Americans to grow their own food. D. To criticize the FDA for not inspecting our imports. 14. What is the purpose of the second article? Reasoning Through Language Arts

A. To applaud iPura for its revolutionary business model.

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B. To comment on the impacts a failing economy can have on America’s consumer habits. C. To inform Americans about alternatives to imported foods. D. To warn Americans about the harmful effects of imported foods.

15. What is something these two authors would agree about? A. A struggling economy creates innovative companies. B. Reliance on imported foods should be diminished. C. Health care should be the number one priority when dealing with imported foods. D. Failing health creates innovative companies. Read the following article, “What Every Woman Should Know About Long-Term Care” to answer the questions. With women generally outliving men, planning for long-term care becomes more urgent for them in their pre-retirement years. After all, while longevity definitely has its upside — including more time to enjoy travel and family — there’s no denying its biggest potential downside: the increased risk of health problems that can make caring for oneself difficult. Today, seven in 10 nursing home residents are women. They also represent a whopping 76 percent of assisted living residents, according to the latest statistics, and two-thirds of all home-care recipients. And that care isn’t necessarily what many would consider “affordable” — unless you’re perhaps lucky enough to have the opportunity to enroll in the likes of the Federal Long Term Care Insurance Program (FLTCIP). “Like other forms of health care, long-term care is expensive, and costs continually increase,” says Paul Forte, CEO of Long Term Care Partners, which administers the FLTCIP. The program is specifically designed to help current and retired federal employees safeguard their retirement income and savings while maintaining their independence and avoiding reliance on their children.

How Will You Pay for Care? The most recent John Hancock Cost of Care Study puts the national average cost of a licensed home health aide at $20 per hour, with private and semiprivate nursing home rooms going for $235 and $207, respectively, a day. Those costs aren’t generally covered by health plans such as Medicare, the Defense Department’s TRICARE, TRICARE for Life, or even the regular Federal Employees Health Benefits Program. And as for Medicaid, as Forte notes, “it covers long-term care only for those with very low income and assets, so the responsibility for paying may fall on you.”

Practice Test 11

Now suppose you’re a woman who is eligible for the FLTCIP, but you haven’t yet applied. Ask yourself these four questions: • Considering your health and family history, might you live a long life with health conditions that could hinder caring for yourself? • Do you live alone? • If you don’t live alone, how might tending to you disrupt the professional and personal lives of others, and do you wish to be dependent on them? • If you do live alone, will you have the resources not just to pay for care, but to also maintain a comfortable lifestyle?

The Advantages of the FLTCIP Established by an act of Congress in 2000 and overseen by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, the program is tailored exclusively to meet the budgetary and lifestyle needs of what’s referred to as “the federal family.” And as so often is the case with the federal workforce, the cost to enrollees is surprisingly affordable.

How affordable? Well, there’s a choice of four prepackaged plans that combine the most popular program features, with customizable plans also available. So, say you’re a 45-year-old woman who chooses the FLTCIP’s most popular prepackaged plan (Plan B, with the 4 percent inflation rider). You’d pay a biweekly premium of $33.90 — less than $68 per month, or slightly more than $2 a day — for protection that can save you thousands of dollars in future care costs.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

The program’s consumer-friendly website lets you calculate the premium rate for your age and choice of plans (www.LTCFEDS.com/rate ), and view current and past informational webinars (www.LTCFEDS.com/webinar ). Personal consultants can also walk you through the entire process, including plan design and applications.

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Again, not everyone is eligible for FLTCIP, and certain medical conditions, or combinations of conditions, will prevent some from being approved for coverage. Premiums are set with the expectation that they’ll suffice, but aren’t guaranteed. While the group policy is in effect, OPM must approve an increase in premium.

16. What is the underlying premise of this article? A. Men should take better care of themselves so they can live as long as their female partners. B. The assumption is that women outlive men. C. Without proper planning for the future, people can suffer serious consequences. D. People should find ways to care for themselves rather than moving into assisted living facilities. 17. Which sentence proves the author has taken other, potentially conflicting factors into consideration before making this argument? A. “After all, while longevity definitely has its upside — including more time to enjoy travel and family — there’s no denying its biggest potential downside: the increased risk of health problems that can make caring ‘for oneself difficult.’ ” B. “Today, seven in 10 nursing home residents are women.” C. “Established by an act of Congress in 2000 and overseen by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, the program is tailored exclusively to meet the budgetary and lifestyle needs of what’s referred to as ‘the federal family.’” D. “Again, not everyone is eligible for FLTCIP, and certain medical conditions, or combinations of conditions, will prevent some from being approved for coverage.” 18. Short Answer: How does the author’s structure (specifically subheadings) support the fluid transitions?

Practice Test 13

19. What is the inherent cause-and-effect argument presented in this article? A. If you do not raise your children properly, they will not take care of you when you are old. B. Longevity will impact choices you will have to make. C. The cost of living will not rise in the future. D. Living longer will not impact the future. 20. How can this information be applied to readers in different situations? A. Readers can be encouraged to make smart decisions (such as saving money) for their future. B. Readers can take more time to spend with their children to ensure a healthier relationship. C. Readers can ensure they take the right steps to care for themselves in the future. D. Readers can visit the websites provided to receive the care mentioned in this article. 21. Drag and drop all the supporting details for the main idea. A. With women generally outliving men, planning for long-term care becomes more urgent for them in their pre-retirement years. B. They also represent a whopping 76 percent of assisted living residents, according to the latest statistics, and two-thirds of all home-care recipients. C. The program is specifically designed to help current and retired federal employees safeguard their retirement income and savings while maintaining their independence and avoiding reliance on their children.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

D. The most recent John Hancock Cost of Care Study puts the national average cost of a licensed home health aide at $20 per hour, with private and semiprivate nursing home rooms going for $235 and $207, respectively, a day.

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E. And as for Medicaid, as Forte notes, “it covers long-term care only for those with very low income and assets, so the responsibility for paying may fall on you.” F. How affordable? G. Personal consultants can also walk you through the entire process, including plan design and applications. For this paper-and-pencil setting, simply place the letter for your selected answers below.

Consider the following two pieces of information: the article, “Crowdfunding Brings Relief to Student Debt Burden,” and the graph, “Crowdfunded Projects on Kickstarter, 2012” to answer the following questions. Crowdfunding Brings Relief to Student Debt Burden Whether you’re a supportive parent, an eager high school grad, or an adult looking to return to school, the reality of higher education is gloomy. Tuition keeps climbing, the job market isn’t improving fast enough, and the mountain of student loan debt passed the $1 trillion mile marker and kept on trucking with enthusiasm. Successful entrepreneur and owner of NBA team the Dallas Mavericks, Mark Cuban blogged a great question, “We freak out about the trillions of dollars in debt our country faces. What about the trillion dollar plus debt college kids are facing?” Student debt is a growing problem for more than 37 million Americans. People are falling behind on student loans at a worse level than before. Now, long-term delinquency rates for student loans are higher than delinquency rates for car loans, mortgages, and home equity loans. These dismal statistics aren’t surprising, considering a recent labor analysis by the Associated Press indicating that over half the adults below 25 with a bachelor’s degree are under-employed or can’t find a job at all. “Although the situation is growing worse, the federal government hasn’t been able to find a real solution to the student loan crisis,” says Amy Mintz, founder of Student Body of America Association (SBAA). SBAA is a nonprofit organization that offers information, support, and viable solutions to the student debt crisis and escalating costs of higher education through several programs including movie production and disbursement of funds for U.S. students. SBAA is the fiscal sponsor of CrowdFundEDU — a new and potentially integral piece in the student debt puzzle. CrowdFundEDU is a social fundraising platform with tangible results and real-world applications. “CrowdFundEDU is basically Kickstarter for education,” explains Mintz. “People hold an online fundraiser for any education-related goal. That includes tuition, student loans, seminars, equipment, study-abroad programs, activities, you name it.”

Practice Test

Much like Kickstarter, CrowdFundEDU relies on social networks to stir interest and urge supporters to donate to a good cause. People can make direct contributions to fundraisers or a general donation to SBAA, which is tax-deductible and allocated to student and school fundraisers. As with other online fundraisers, seeing strangers and acquaintances alike rally to help someone is

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inspiring. Get a glimpse of the CrowdFundEDU mentality at www.projectpayitforward.org, SBAA’s documentary film currently in pre-production. CrowdFundEDU can be used for all levels of education, including grades K–12 up to a Ph.D. plus trade school degrees and certifications. But, given the heightened interest in the skyrocketing costs of education, the platform sparked special interest in its potential to alleviate the student debt problem. To learn more about the unsustainable student loan system mired in higher education, visit www.thefallenamericandream.com.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

22. How does the information in the chart clarify the information presented in the article?

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A. The chart negates all information presented in the article because it does not show specific scholarship awards through crowdfunding. B. The chart indicates that only fine arts majors, such as photography, music, and dance, will have any success with Kickstarter. C. Certain Kickstarter projects have made nearly $80 million dollars, which gives proof there is a substantial amount of money to be made through the venue. D. The chart indicates that technology projects receive the highest pledge value, but games have the most interest.

23. What is the common theme between the two pieces of information? A. Crowdfunding can help fund major projects. B. Crowdfunding is an unfair and unethical manner to raise money. C. Kickstarter is only successful with independent projects that will yield returns. D. Patrons do not want to support the arts. 24. How will the graph potentially affect the intended audience of the article? A. Students will be incredibly pleased with the graph because it will give them many ideas about the types of projects they can potentially crowdsource. B. Students will be angered by the graph because it indicates that traditional methods of paying for school are no longer available to them. C. Students with full scholarships will not be affected by the graph. D. Students may be disappointed by the information presented by the graph, as it does not show the data regarding educational projects. 25. What conclusions can be drawn from the information presented? A. A person will likely come up against many obstacles when attempting to crowdfund his education. B. Education is becoming more and more costly as times progress. C. Without a college degree, a person cannot be successful in life. D. A person must have the proper tools and motivation to make money off of crowdfunding. 26. How can the overall impact of this information be applied to different situations? A. People looking to crowdfund might find the best opportunities for projects other than education given the information presented in the chart. B. People will find that education is no longer a necessary commodity and will enter the workforce. C. People will learn how to use the internet as a tool to build businesses. D. People will become more interested in attending or supporting projects backed by crowdfunding websites such as Kickstarter.

Practice Test 17

27. How does the data in the chart support the author’s claims? A. The chart indicates that crowdfunding can be lucrative. B. The chart indicates that many crowdfunded projects fail. C. The chart indicates that education is directly affected by Kickstarter. D. The chart indicates that crowdfunding is a time-consuming effort. 28. What conclusions can be drawn from the article and the chart? A. Kickstarter projects ultimately make people happy. B. Funding through crowdfunding is the solution to trying times in this economy. C. Crowdfunding will pave the way for more independent film projects. D. Crowdfunding is a legitimate option for funding one’s education. Read the following excerpt from Ralph Waldo Emerson’s essay, “Illusions.” I own, I did not like the cave so well for eking out its sublimities with this theatrical trick. But I have had many experiences like it, before and since; and we must be content to be pleased without too curiously analyzing the occasions. Our conversation with Nature is not just what it seems. The cloud-rack, the sunrise and sunset glories, rainbows, and northern lights are not quite so spheral as our childhood thought them; and the part our organization plays in them is too large. The senses interfere everywhere, and mix their own structure with all they report of. Once, we fancied the earth a plane, and stationary. In admiring the sunset, we do not yet deduct the rounding, coordinating, pictorial powers of the eye.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

The same interference from our organization creates the most of our pleasure and pain. Our first mistake is the belief that the circumstance gives the joy which we give to the circumstance. Life is an ecstasy. Life is sweet as nitrous oxide; and the fisherman dripping all day over a cold pond, the switchman at the railway intersection, the farmer in the field, the negro in the rice-swamp, the fop in the street, the hunter in the woods, the barrister with the jury, the belle at the ball, all ascribe a certain pleasure to their employment, which they themselves give it. Health and appetite impart the sweetness to sugar, bread, and meat. We fancy that our civilization has got on far, but we still come back to our primers.

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We live by our imaginations, by our admirations, by our sentiments. The child walks amid heaps of illusions, which he does not like to have disturbed. The boy, how sweet to him is his fancy! how dear the story of barons and battles! What a hero he is, whilst he feeds on his heroes! What a debt is his to imaginative books! He has no better friend or influence, than Scott, Shakespeare,

Plutarch, and Homer. The man lives to other objects, but who dare affirm that they are more real? Even the prose of the streets is full of refractions. In the life of the dreariest alderman, fancy enters into all details, and colors them with rosy hue. He imitates the air and actions of people whom he admires, and is raised in his own eyes. He pays a debt quicker to a rich man than to a poor man. He wishes the bow and compliment of some leader in the state, or in society; weighs what he says; perhaps he never comes nearer to him for that, but dies at last better contented for this amusement of his eyes and his fancy.

29. What is the theme of this passage? A. At some point in our lives, we all must grow up and abandon the illusions of our youth. B. Imagination is detrimental to achievement. C. People’s imaginations and attitude are what shape our experience of events. D. Illusions color our perceptions of reality. 30. What is the meaning of the word fop? (This would be a drop-down question type on the GED® test.) A. Goat B. Fancy gentleman C. Angry D. Rubbish 31. What is the author’s attitude toward illusions? A. Illusions are sentimental aspirations, which, while necessary, should be kept separate from our professional lives. B. Illusions are what help us become better people. C. Illusions are only to be embraced because to deny them would be a distraction that will keep us from productivity. D. Illusions are a necessary and integral part of our lives, and grow with us from childhood into adulthood.

Practice Test 19

32. How does the structure of the sentence “Life is sweet as nitrous oxide; and the fisherman dripping all day over a cold pond, the switchman at the railway intersection, the farmer in the field, the negro in the rice-swamp, the fop in the street, the hunter in the woods, the barrister with the jury, the belle at the ball, all ascribe a certain pleasure to their employment, which they themselves give it” affect its message? A. The use of figurative language helps to draw the reader into believing that life is very sweet. B. The use of dependent clauses as part of a run-on sentence helps to sway the reader into the melodious nature of imagination. C. The listing employed helps to portray a universal aspect of the idea that all walks of life require imagination and joy. D. The semicolon joins the two sentences together, making them a coherent argument. 33. What is the main rhetorical approach employed by Emerson in this passage? A. Emotional appeal B. Appeal to tradition C. Logical persuasion D. Ethical appeal 34. What is the author’s implicit purpose in this text? A. To encourage readers to reflect on what makes them so lucky in life. B. To encourage readers to embrace imagination and live life joyously. C. To encourage readers to be nicer to each other. D. To encourage readers to live every day as if it was their last.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

Read the following passage from Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë.

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It is in vain to say human beings ought to be satisfied with tranquility: they must have action; and they will make it if they cannot find it. Millions are condemned to a stiller doom than mine, and millions are in silent revolt against their lot. Nobody knows how many rebellions besides political rebellions ferment in the masses of life which people earth. Women are supposed to be very calm generally: but women feel just as men feel; they need exercise for their faculties, and a field for their efforts, as much as their brothers do; they suffer from too rigid a restraint, too absolute a stagnation, precisely as men would suffer; and it is narrow-minded in their more privileged fellow-creatures to say that they ought to confine themselves to making puddings and knitting stockings, to playing on the piano and embroidering bags. It is thoughtless to condemn

them, or laugh at them, if they seek to do more or learn more than custom has pronounced necessary for their sex. When thus alone, I not unfrequently heard Grace Poole’s laugh: the same peal, the same low, slow ha! ha! which, when first heard, had thrilled me: I heard, too, her eccentric murmurs; stranger than her laugh. There were days when she was quite silent; but there were others when I could not account for the sounds she made. Sometimes I saw her: she would come out of her room with a basin, or a plate, or a tray in her hand, go down to the kitchen and shortly return, generally (oh, romantic reader, forgive me for telling the plain truth!) bearing a pot of porter. Her appearance always acted as a damper to the curiosity raised by her oral oddities: hard-featured and staid, she had no point to which interest could attach. I made some attempts to draw her into conversation, but she seemed a person of few words: a monosyllabic reply usually cut short every effort of that sort. The other members of the household, viz., John and his wife, Leah the housemaid, and Sophie the French nurse, were decent people; but in no respect remarkable; with Sophie I used to talk French, and sometimes I asked her questions about her native country; but she was not of a descriptive or narrative turn, and generally gave such vapid and confused answers as were calculated rather to check than encourage inquiry. October, November, December passed away. One afternoon in January, Mrs. Fairfax had begged a holiday for Adele, because she had a cold; and, as Adele seconded the request with an ardour that reminded me how precious occasional holidays had been to me in my own childhood, I accorded it, deeming that I did well in showing pliability on the point. It was a fine, calm day, though very cold; I was tired of sitting still in the library through a whole long morning: Mrs. Fairfax had just written a letter which was waiting to be posted, so I put on my bonnet and cloak and volunteered to carry it to Hay; the distance, two miles, would be a pleasant winter afternoon walk. Having seen Adele comfortably seated in her little chair by Mrs. Fairfax’s parlour fireside, and given her her best wax doll (which I usually kept enveloped in silver paper in a drawer) to play with, and a story-book for change of amusement; and having replied to her “Revenez bientot, ma bonne amie, ma chere Mdlle. Jeannette,” with a kiss I set out.

35. Which of the following has the correct order of events in this passage. (This would be a drop-and-drag question type on the GED® test.) A. Jane discusses the need for women to have an occupation. B. Jane invites Adele for a holiday. C. Jane sees Grace Poole steal beer from the kitchen. D. Jane speaks with Sophie, the French nurse. E. Jane hears the strange laugh of Grace Poole. Practice Test

F. Jane goes for a walk.

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A. (A), (F), (B), (C), (D), (E) B. (B), (C), (A), (D), (F), (E) C. (E), (B), (C), (A), (D), (F) D. (A), (E), (C), (D), (B), (F) For this paper-and-pencil setting, simply place the letter for your selected answers below.

36. Which sentence best indicates Brontë may be a feminist? A. Women are supposed to be very calm generally: but women feel just as men feel; they need exercise for their faculties, and a field for their efforts, as much as their brothers do; they suffer from too rigid a restraint, too absolute a stagnation, precisely as men would suffer; and it is narrow-minded in their more privileged fellow-creatures to say that they ought to confine themselves to making puddings and knitting stockings, to playing on the piano and embroidering bags. B. There were days when she was quite silent; but there were others when I could not account for the sounds she made. C. The other members of the household, viz., John and his wife, Leah the housemaid, and Sophie the French nurse, were decent people; but in no respect remarkable; with Sophie I used to talk French, and sometimes I asked her questions about her native country; but she was not of a descriptive or narrative turn, and generally gave such vapid and confused answers as were calculated rather to check than encourage inquiry.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

D. One afternoon in January, Mrs. Fairfax had begged a holiday for Adele, because she had a cold; and, as Adele seconded the request with an ardour that reminded me how precious occasional holidays had been to me in my own childhood, I accorded it, deeming that I did well in showing pliability on the point.

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37. Short Answer: What is Jane’s feeling about Grace Poole?

38. What is the effect of the figurative language used in the sentence, “Nobody knows how many rebellions besides political rebellions ferment in the masses of life which people earth.” A. Repeating the word “rebellions” helps to cement the author’s purpose that mutiny is a way of life. B. Using the word “ferment” to describe internal struggles indicates a rising boil of passion within a person, inflaming the audience’s senses. C. The phrase, “masses of life which people earth” is particularly effective in indicating the sheer number of people who live on earth. D. No figurative language is used in this sentence. 39. What is the effect of the first paragraph on the rest of the selection? A. It sets the stage for the events to unfold. B. It describes the characters in the rest of the piece. C. It sets the tone for the entire novel. D. It indicates Jane’s fierce independence. 40. What can you conclude about Jane’s character? A. Jane is weak. B. Jane is more interested in the affairs of others than she is in her own. C. Jane is curious and strong-willed. D. Jane is cruel-hearted.

Practice Test 23

REASONING THROUGH LANGUAGE ARTS Language Section 50 questions

Read the following blog entry and answer the questions that follow. Today a man actually said, out loud, to me, “Only a woman would be so selfish.” He was talking about my very legal, very public right to park my Vespa — unobtrusively at that — at a bicycle rack on a sidewalk. I suppose it is up for debate whether it is selfish of me to: drive a scooter, take an insignificant and unclaimed slice of the sidewalk, protect my expensive belonging by securing it to an immoveable object designed for such a purpose, live and breathe at all . . . but whether or not my actions caused this guy some inconvenience or strife for which I should have been aware of my need to apologize to him is actually irrelevant. What really startled me, of course, was his blatant sexism.  This man did not appear to be uneducated, in fact, he was really quite dapper, and albeit rotund (so he must be making decent enough money). He wasn’t notably older than me and didn’t have a southern drawl — though DC is still south of the Mason-Dixon line, no matter which way you slice it — so there was no reason to believe he had grown up around such ardently expressed, vocal prejudice. (I only refer to the south as a seed of such sexism because I remember my science teacher in Fayetteville in the 7th grade telling me in front of the class that my effort to get an A was a waste of time, women belonged in the kitchen.) This was just an average, middle class white guy.  I channeled Esther Greenwood. I have never met a woman-hater before.  So I started thinking, what makes men hate women? Generally, I think it is women who tend to be the ones big on the slandering of the opposite sex. Stereotypically, gals have all the right ammunition to fire against men: rape, oppression, promiscuity, abandonment, blah blah blah . . . But what does our sex, in general, do to paint ourselves as fundamentally selfish to the menfolk?  I did see a special on social networking sites about women searching for men to be her “Sugar Daddies,” but it seems to me that this is often a consensual, upfront arrangement, like prostitution (which I’m neither championing nor denouncing, just noting it as a contractual agreement), in which money and goods are exchanged for services. Sure, these “Sugar Babies” may have some pretty questionable motives, but is it necessarily selfish? It seems to me both parties are receiving benefits. I think women, yes, can be good with manipulation, particularly that of the emotional variety, but that makes us coercive, not selfish. I guess in the past women have typically been the ones to survive off their husband’s much fatter paychecks, but still, they cook, clean, mother children, entertain at least five full-time-stay-at-home-OTHER jobs at that, AND work on a budget of what is allowed them. I don’t really see that as selfish, but I guess some men might. 

Practice Test

I wonder if this particular man’s wife left him and took the car and the house in the ’burbs, and that’s why he was at union station in the first place — to take the metro to his measly intern-esque, low-paying job, only to kiss the profit goodbye to pay her alimony and child support while she’s off with Mr. Older and Much Richer. That would score him some right to be bitter chips, I guess. But to be bitter to ALL women? Me? I never dated him, never would, actually, and had never given him any reason to judge and exploit my character flaws. Let alone those of my whole sex.

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Effectively quieting the notion that he may have been speaking to someone else, what further eludes me about this situation is why he would articulate this thought while looking me dead in the eyes. Wouldn’t it have been more productive, if I was indeed BEING selfish, to say something like, Hey. You know, that’s kind of rude, what you’re doing there. I don’t have a bike with me, but if I did, I might like to park it there, instead of at the other, far less accessible to YOU, but not anyone with a bicycle space. Why don’t you move somewhere else? Or, Hey. You’re in the way of my invisible entourage. Move it. I probably would have taken ACTION in his best interest if he had approached me with a more logical and concerted effort. Nope. Instead all I get is snarky bitterness because I’m a woman. Of course, I have to fight the urge to retort with an equally debasing, dehumanizing sexist remark, because I realize: it’s not because he’s a man that he made that remark. It’s because he’s ________. I’ve inserted several colorful invectives in that sentence to pass the time in commute between work and home.  Maybe insult was added to injury because I towered over him. Strong, tall women. Man, we rock. We scare fat balding men into making derogatory comments at us just because they’re intimidated.

1. How can this sentence be rewritten to avoid the error? “I wonder if this particular man’s wife left him and took the car and the house in the ’burbs, and that’s why he was at union station in the first place — to take the metro to his measly intern-esque, low-paying job, only to kiss the profit goodbye to pay her alimony and child support while she’s off with Mr. Older and Much Richer.”

Reasoning Through Language Arts

A. “I wonder if this particular man’s wife left him and took the car and the house in the ’burbs, and that’s why he was at Union Station in the first place — to take the metro to his measly intern-esque, low-paying job, only to kiss the profit goodbye to pay her alimony and child support while she’s off with Mr. Older and Much Richer.

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B. “I wonder if this particular man’s wife left him and took the car and the house in the ’burbs, and that’s why he was at union station in the first place — to take the metro to his measly intern-esque, low-paying job, only to kiss the profit goodbye to pay her alimony and child support while she’s off with Mr. older and much richer. C. “I wonder if this particular man’s wife left him and took the car and the house in the ’burbs, and that’s why he was at union station in the first place — to take the metro to his measly intern-esque, low-paying job, only too kiss the profit goodbye to pay her alimony and child support while she’s off with Mr. Older and Much Richer. D. No change.

2. Short Answer: Rewrite this segment to avoid the fragmentation. “I never dated him, never would, actually, and had never given him any reason to judge and exploit my character flaws. Let alone those of my whole sex.”

3. How can the sentence “I did see a special on social networking sites about women searching for men to be her “Sugar Daddies,” but it seems to me that this is often a consensual, upfront arrangement, like prostitution (which I’m neither championing nor denouncing, just noting it as a contractual agreement), in which money and goods are exchanged for services” be rewritten to avoid the pronoun confusion? A. I did see a special on social networking sites about women searching for men to be her “Sugar Daddies,” but it seems to me that this is often a consensual, upfront arrangement, like prostitution (which I’m neither championing nor denouncing, just noting it as a contractual agreement), when money and goods are exchanged for services. B. I did see a special on Social Networking sites about women searching for men to be her “Sugar Daddies,” but it seems to me that this is often a consensual, upfront arrangement, like prostitution (which I’m neither championing nor denouncing, just noting it as a contractual agreement), in which money and goods are exchanged for services. C. I did see a special on social networking sites about women searching for men to be their “Sugar Daddies,” but it seems to me that this is often a consensual, upfront arrangement, like prostitution (which I’m neither championing nor denouncing, just noting it as a contractual agreement), in which money and goods are exchanged for services. D. No change.

Practice Test 27

4. How should the sentence “Of course, I have to fight the urge to retort with an equally debasing, dehumanizing sexist remark, because I realize: it’s not because he’s a man that he made that remark,” be written to avoid the subject-verb agreement error? A. “Of course, I have to fight the urge to retort with an equally debasing, dehumanizing sexist remark, because I realized: it’s not because he’s a man that he made that remark.” B. “Of course, I have to fight the urge to retort with an equally debasing, dehumanizing sexist remark, because I realize it’s not because he’s a man that he made that remark.” C. “Of course, I had to fight the urge to retort with an equally debasing, dehumanizing sexist remark, because I realize: it’s not because he’s a man that he made that remark. D. No change. 5. Correctly punctuate: Wouldn’t it have been more productive, if I was indeed BEING selfish, to say something like, Hey. You know, that’s kind of rude, what you’re doing there. I don’t have a bike with me, but if I did, I might like to park it there, instead of at the other, far less accessible to YOU, but not anyone with a bicycle spaces. Why don’t you move somewhere else? Or, Hey. You’re in the way of my invisible entourage. Move it. 6. How can this sentence be rewritten to avoid the informal register? “I wonder if this particular man’s wife left him and took the car and the house in the ‘burbs, and that’s why he was at union station in the first place — to take the metro to his measly internesque, low-paying job, only to kiss the profit goodbye to pay her alimony and child support while she’s off with Mr. Older and Much Richer.”

Reasoning Through Language Arts

A. I wonder if this particular man’s wife left him and took the car and the house in the suburbs, and that’s why he was at Union Station in the first place — to take the metro to his measly intern-style, low-paying job, only to kiss the profit goodbye to pay her alimony and child support while she’s off with Mr. Older and Much Richer.

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B. I wonder if this particular man’s wife left him and took the car and the house in the ‘burbs, and that’s why he was at Union Station in the first place — to take the metro to his measly intern-esque, low-paying job, only to kiss the profit goodbye to pay her alimony and child support while she’s off with someone else. C. I wonder if this particular man’s wife left him and took the car and the house in the suburbs, and that’s why he was at union station in the first place — to take the metro to his measly intern-esque, low-paying job, only to kiss the profit goodbye to pay her alimony and child support while she’s off with Mr. Older and Much Richer. D. No change.

7. Which word should replace the word “their” in the sentence “I guess in the past women have typically been the ones to survive off their husband’s much fatter paychecks, but still, they cook, clean, mother children, entertain at least five full-time-stay-at-homeOTHER jobs at that, AND work on a budget of what is allowed them.” A. they’re B. there C. her D. No change. 8. How should this sentence be written to ensure proper coordination? “I suppose it is up for debate whether it is selfish of me to: drive a scooter, take an insignificant and unclaimed slice of the sidewalk, protect my expensive belonging by securing it to an immoveable object designed for such a purpose, live and breathe at all . . . but whether or not my actions caused this guy some inconvenience or strife for which I should have been aware of my need to apologize to him is actually irrelevant.” A. I suppose it is up for debate whether it is selfish of me to drive a scooter, take an insignificant and unclaimed slice of the sidewalk, protect my expensive belonging by securing it to an immoveable object designed for such a purpose, live and breathe at all . . . but whether or not my actions caused this guy some inconvenience or strife for which I should have been aware of my need to apologize to him is actually irrelevant. B. I suppose it is up for debate whether it is selfish of me to drive a scooter, take an insignificant and unclaimed slice of the sidewalk, protect my expensive belonging by securing it to an immoveable object designed for such a purpose, or live and breathe at all . . . but whether or not my actions caused this guy some inconvenience or strife for which I should have been aware of my need to apologize to him is actually irrelevant. C. I suppose it is up for debate whether it is selfish of me to: drive a scooter; take an insignificant and unclaimed slice of the sidewalk; protect my expensive belonging by securing it to an immoveable object designed for such a purpose; live and breathe at all . . . but whether or not my actions caused this guy some inconvenience or strife for which I should have been aware of my need to apologize to him is actually irrelevant. D. No change.

Practice Test 29

9. How should this sentence be rewritten to fix the awkward construction? “Effectively quieting the notion that he may have been speaking to someone else, what further eludes me about this situation is why he would articulate this thought while looking me dead in the eyes.” A. Effective to quiet the notion that he may have been speaking to someone else, what further eludes me about this situation is why he would articulate this thought while looking me dead in the eyes. B. Effectively quieting the notion that he may have been speaking to someone else, what further eludes me about this situation is why he would have possibly articulated this thought while looking me dead in the eyes. C. What further eludes me about this situation is why he would articulate this thought while looking me dead in the eyes, effectively quieting the notion that he may have been speaking to someone else. D. No change. Read the following business memo to answer the questions. Yesterday Melanie Harris and I visited Carver High School to investigate their LEARN model. They have been working on intervention strategies for 10 years, and are perhaps the most progressive school in the county in terms of being a truly established PLC. It is imperative we change our model to follow theirs.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

We met with students, teachers, administrators, student services and testing coordinators, and came back with more information than I can share in a succinct email. To put it simply, Carver’s successful plan boils down to three pieces:

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1) They use their Success Prep classes to directly intervene with students who are struggling. These kids, as it was beautifully put, are the ones they hope become AVID kids. The rules for scheduling students are: no IEPs. 1.5-2.5 GPA, no behavioral problems, no big weakness. SP is a course that organizes binders, checks homework, assigns LEARN, teaches study strategies, etc. They choose their teachers carefully. There are 3 sections arranged by grade level (9, 10 and 11). They are an English teacher, a math teacher and a science teacher, and they are the “jack of all trades” in the departments. They teach IB courses, but CHOOSE to also work with these kids to establish a rapport with them, encourage them and help them succeed. These teacher’s were paid for 8 hours to meet in the summer to plan the year, they all have the same planning block and they have every resource necessary in their classrooms. (10th grade SP has every 10th grade textbook, etc.). SP meets the same block so the teachers can send kids to the math expert if that is where the student is struggling. The classes started very small (around 7) so students could be added through the year as they were identified. At March they have about 15–20.

2) LEARN has two levels of teacher support, advisor and mentor. LEARN has 3 levels of Standing: Good, Monitored, and Supervised. Good students have all Cs or above Monitored have 1 D or F and Supervised have multiple Ds and Fs. Carver has PDAs for students to check in, but they do not assign LEARN unless a student is in Supervised Standing. They keep records about where everyone goes, though, and once a quarter, the LEARN advisor disseminates a LEARN report along with the interim. This report is created by the Testing Coordinator. The LEARN report shows the child where they have gone, and this is a useful tool for the teacher at parent conferences. Carver has LEARN 4 times a week (not Wednesday, the day the school begins late for teacher collaboration). The students said they hate Wednesdays because they NEEDS LEARN, and that the 36 minutes is not nearly enough time. 3) Carver staffs an IA who runs ISS, but this is an ACADEMIC intervention for the most part, with only occasional behavioral referrals. When kids are not attending assigned LEARN, or when they are chronically Supervised, teachers can send their students to ISS teachers know they are monitored there. The IA is gifted in math, and he establishes a good rapport with the students and forces them to do work. This runs all day. A few things the crew at Carver communicated very strongly: 1) One time a week is not nearly enough to make this model work in any kind of productive fashion. 2) Student choice is very important, and you have to trust the kids to do the right thing so the atmosphere does not become negative. Someone said this profound statement, “Why make a rule that only applies to 10% of the kids that 100% of the people have to follow?” There was some disagreement about whether or not the Cafeteria should be open to students as a place to hang out, but at first the general sentiment was that it was a good strategy for a reward. Of course, there is a gate keeper, and students not in Good Standing CANNOT enter. This is easy to determine by the PDAs. 3) All the work for success is done on the front end. 4) ILT uses their time to talk about the 10% of kids who keep failing. However, they’ve begun the new LEARN model, they have decreased their failure rate to 8%. They have the highest IB scores in the county, and the largest number of students sitting for exams because their culture is such: give the kids the resources they need to take really hard classes and they will do it. Finally, we learned that Carver is a really excellent school for teachers, parents, administrators and students to be at.

Practice Test 31

10. Fix the apostrophe in the sentence, “These teacher’s were paid for 8 hours to meet in the summer to plan the year, they all have the same planning block and they have every resource necessary in their classrooms.” A. These teachers’ were paid for 8 hours to meet in the summer to plan the year, they all have the same planning block and they have every resource necessary in their classrooms.  B. These teacher’s were paid for 8 hours to meet in the summer to plan the year, they’ll have the same planning block and they have every resource necessary in their classrooms.  C. These teachers were paid for 8 hours to meet in the summer to plan the year, they all have the same planning block and they have every resource necessary in their classrooms.  D. No change. 11. How should this sentence be written to give it more clarity, “There was some disagreement about whether or not the Cafeteria should be open to students as a place to hang out, but at first the general sentiment was that it was a good strategy for a reward.”  A. At first there was some disagreement about whether or not the Cafeteria should be open to students as a place to hang out, but the general sentiment was that it was a good strategy for a reward.  B. There was some disagreement about whether or not the Cafeteria should be open to students as a place to hang out, but the general sentiment was that it was a good strategy for a reward at first.  C. There was some disagreement about whether or not the Cafeteria should at first be open to students as a place to hang out, but the general sentiment was that it was a good strategy for a reward. 

Reasoning Through Language Arts

D. No change.

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12. How should this sentence be rewritten to avoid the run-on? “When kids are not attending assigned LEARN, or when they are chronically Supervised, teachers can send their students to ISS teachers know they are monitored there.” A. When kids are not attending assigned LEARN or when they are chronically Supervised teachers can send their students to ISS teachers know they are monitored there. B. When kids are not attending assigned LEARN, or when they are chronically Supervised, teachers can send their students to ISS; teachers know they are monitored there. C. When kids are not attending assigned LEARN, or when they are chronically Supervised, teachers can send their students to ISS teachers. Know they are monitored there. D. No change. 13. Correct the punctuation in this sentence, “Good students have all Cs or above Monitored have 1 D or F and Supervised have multiple Ds and Fs.”

14. How should this sentence be properly worded? “Finally, we learned that Carver is a really excellent school for teachers, parents, administrators and students to be at.” A. Finally, Carver is a really excellent school for teachers, parents, administrators and students to be. B. Finally, we learned that Carver is a really excellent school for teachers, parents, administrators and students. C. Finally, we learned that Carver is a really excellent school. D. No change. 15. Which word should replace the word “to” in the sentence, “One time a week is not nearly enough to make this model work in any kind of productive fashion.” A. too B. two C. that D. No change. Practice Test 33

16. Fix the subject verb agreement in this sentence, “The students said they hate Wednesdays because they needs LEARN, and that the 36 minutes is not nearly enough time.” A. The students said them hate Wednesdays because they needs LEARN, and that the 36 minutes is not nearly enough time. B. The students said they hate Wednesdays because they need LEARN, and that the 36 minutes is not nearly enough time. C. The students said they hate Wednesday’s because they needs LEARN, and that the 36 minutes is not nearly enough time. D. No change. 17. What change needs to be made to fix the transitional word in the sentence “However, they’ve begun the new LEARN model, they have decreased their failure rate to 8%”? A. Change “However” to “Since.” B. Change “However” to “Therefore” and remove the comma. C. Change “However” to “Since” and remove the comma. D. No change. 18. Short Answer: Rewrite this sentence to eliminate wordiness. “It is imperative that we must change our model to follow theirs.”

Reasoning Through Language Arts

Read the following pre-service teacher’s essay to answer the questions.

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I knew that I wanted to be an English teacher NOT in my English class. I was actually in speech, practicing an oratory about imaginary friends to the sand hills of North Carolina just beyond the second story window of my high school. I was very seriously discussing the negative impacts of growing up too quickly when a marvelous event unfolded. The AP Physics teacher ran out of space for a very complicated equation on his chalkboard. It was the first clear and mildly warm day (in February), and they decided to bring his class outside to finish the problem on a seemingly endless chalkboard: the sidewalk. The commencement of the public chalking intrigued me.

I stood in awe as I watched the fifteen student’s mark up the sidewalk for the better part of an hour with what looked to me like hieroglyphics. I hate physics. I am no good at math and equations. But this man made me want to drop my other interests, meander outside and take part in finding the solution. In science. I remember thinking to myself — Wow. If that man can make physics — a curriculum in which I have absolutely zero interest — look appealing to me, imagine what I could do with English. Being that I wanted to become a high school English teacher, I’ve never forgotten this day. When I was a junior in high school, a purpose for my life began to develop as I watched this teacher change the lives of his students, my peers, heck, even me — the irrelevant spy and innocent bystander, mauled by physics. My purpose was stemmed in an emerging belief, a belief that everyone deserves the opportunity to make meaningful connections to frustrating tasks, and sometimes we require the service of a talented guide to help us make those connections. I am lucky enough to be on the path to becoming one such a guide. In my experience as a Student teacher, I have learned that in my job, content is secondary. I believe that high school English classes are not about Literature with a capital L. Reading and writing are merely byproducts of the work we do with kids. In a classroom where we compete with texting, homecoming, budding adulthood, celebrities, fashion and bullying, we have to find ways to use their interests, their problems, their lives to relates to the program of studies we are required to teach. Teaching high school English is about opening students’ minds to possibility. I believe English classes are about preparing students for life outside of high school, and if we’re lucky enough, to create one or two English majors along the way. If we’re really lucky, we’ll engender a lifelong love of learning and reading. Our real job is singular: to help them develop their ability to think. Our means are simply works of Literature.

19. Edit to eliminate the fragment in this example, “But this man made me want to drop my other interests, meander outside and take part in finding the solution. In science.” A. “This man made me want to drop my other interests, meander outside and take part in finding the solution. In science.” B. “But this man made me want to drop my other interests, meander outside and take part in finding the solution, in science.” C. “But this man made me want to drop my other interests, and meander outside and take part in finding the solution. In science D. No change.

Practice Test 35

20. Edit to correct the pronoun agreement in the sentence “It was the first clear and mildly warm day (in February), and they decided to bring his class outside to finish the problem on a seemingly endless chalk board: the sidewalk.” A. Replace “they” with “he.” B. Replace “they” with “him.” C. Replace “his” with “their.” D. No change. 21. Edit the illogical word order in the sentence, “But this man made me want to drop my other interests, meander outside and take part in finding the solution.” A. Replace “meander” with “wander.” B. Replace “other” with “current.” C. Replace “But” with “However.” D. No change. 22. Correct the capitalization in this sentence, “In my experience as a Student teacher, I have learned that in my job, content is secondary.” A. “In my experience as a Student Teacher, I have learned that in my job, Content is secondary.” B. “In my experience as a student Teacher, I have learned that in my job, content is secondary.” C. “In my experience as a student teacher, I have learned that in my job, content is secondary.” D. No change.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

23. Correct the awkward wording in the sentence, “Being that I wanted to become a high school English teacher, I’ve never forgotten this day.”

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A. “Because I wanted to become a high school English teacher, I’ve never forgotten this day.” B. “I’ve never forgotten this day, being that I wanted to become a high school English teacher.” C. “I wanted to become a high school English teacher, I’ve never forgotten this day.” D. No change.

24. Correct the subject-verb agreement with the interceding phrase, “In a classroom where we compete with texting, homecoming, budding adulthood, celebrities, fashion and bullying, we have to find ways to use their interests, their problems, their lives to relates to the program of studies we are required to teach.” A. In a classroom where we compete with texting, homecoming, budding adulthood, celebrities, fashion and bullying, we have to find ways to use their interests, their problems, their lives to relates to the program of study we are required to teach B. In a classroom where we compete with texting, homecoming, budding adulthood, celebrities, fashion and bullying, we have to find ways to use their interests, their problems, their lives to relate to the program of studies we are required to teach C. In a classroom where we compete, we have to find ways to use their interests, their problems, their lives to relates to the program of studies we are required to teach D. No change. 25. Which word should replace “knew” in the sentence, “I knew that I wanted to be an English teacher NOT in my English class”? A. new B. know C. think D. No change. 26. How should the informal use be corrected in the sentence, “When I was a junior in high school, a purpose for my life began to develop as I watched this teacher change the lives of his students, my peers, heck, even me — the irrelevant spy and innocent bystander, mauled by physics.” A. Remove the word “heck” and the comma following it. B. Replace the word “mauled” with “intrigued.” C. Remove the phrase “When I was a junior in high school.” D. No change.

Practice Test 37

Read the following information to answer the questions. Your First Time as a Forensics Judge? Since everyone must start somewhere — here are a few tips . . . • Bring a reliable stopwatch, pen and/or pencils. Arrive at the high school where the tournament is being held ON TIME!! Late judges result in fines for the school, and late starts equal long days! • When you arrive, check in with the coaches (usually in the judges’ lounge or near the TAB ROOM). Find out where and when the Judges’ Meeting will be held & GO! • Your coach will give you a judge code. This code is used to identify your judging assignments — no switching judge codes! (It results in BIG problems!) • Claim a comfortable spot in the judge’s lounge. So wear comfortable clothing, it can be a long day; bring reading material and food. Some schools feed you like royalty, but others aren’t quite so generous. • After the judges’ meeting, the meet organizer will “post” the Round I listings. If your code is posted go to the Tab Room, or ballot table to pick up your ballots and the list of students in your room. Go to the room where you’ve been assigned. Tip: go to the restroom on route if in doubt, because it can be a long round. Judging is already difficult to do and much harder when you are uncomfortable. • Review the criteria and ballots — if in doubt, ask another adult before you go to the room, competent. Event rules change from league to league. After you have judged a few times this will become second nature.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

• Fill out the information on the top parts of each ballot. To save time and prevent hand cramps, some judges ask students to fill it out (that is okay to do).

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• Start once all students have arrived. Although it is not necessary, most judges have students sign in on the board with their speaker code, title and author of selection. Some may have signed in on the board with an asterisk (*) or “D.E.” next to their speaker code. This means they are double entered and will return after going to their other event (or, they may ask to speak first and leave to go to their other event.) • Writing ballots: A good Forensics judge is four main things: 1. S/he is familiar with the rules. 2. S/he is willing to be flexible in accepting the student’s interpretation of a piece of literature.

3. S/he is capable of communicating nonverbally during a performance. This is the only form of immediate feedback a student will receive! It is okay to laugh, cry and make eye contact, etc. if you feel that it is appropriate. 4. S/he is well-read and familiar with various forms of literature and current events. Focus on the selection choice, how it was prepared and delivered, and how the author’s expression of meaning and feeling was communicated. Justify and support your decisions! Remember it is constructive criticism, and the students are LEARNING! Find a balance between praise and criticism. To receive a rank and score from a judge without any comments to justify or support the decision, nothing is more frustrating! Be consistent! • Have students perform in the order they are listed. Double entered students are the exception. She should perform first and be permitted to leave OR they can perform when they return. Do NOT give oral critiques. • Keep accurate time and give hand signals. This is essential for Impromptu and Extemp. Most events have a 30 second grace period. • Once all students have performed, they may be dismissed. Finalize your comments and rankings (first through sixth). Make sure your rankings on the individual ballots matches the master ballot. Check it again. • Assign a numeric score (1–100). Scores should NOT go below an 85 (unless it was terrible). No two performers can have the same score or rank.

27. Correct the subordination in this instance, “So wear comfortable clothing, it can be a long day; bring reading material and food.” A. So where comfortable clothing, it can be a long day; bring reading material and food. B. It can be a long day, so wear comfortable clothing; bring reading material and food. C. So wear comfortable clothing, it can be a long day. D. No change. 28. Correct the punctuation in this instance, “If your code is posted go to the Tab Room, or ballot table to pick up your ballots and the list of students in your room.”

Practice Test 39

29. Correct the possession in this sentence, “Claim a comfortable spot in the judge’s lounge.” A. “Claim a comfortable spot in the judges lounge.” B. “Claim a comfortable spot in the judges’ lounge.” C. “Claim a comfortable spot in the judges lounge’s.” D. No change. 30. Correct the pronoun agreement in this sentence, “She should perform first and be permitted to leave OR they can perform when they return.” A. Replace “She” with “They.” B. Replace “they” with “she.” C. Replace “they” with “them.” D. No change. 31. Correct the misplaced modifier in this sentence, “Review the criteria and ballots — if in doubt, ask another adult before you go to the room, competent.” A. “Review the competent criteria and ballots — if in doubt, ask another adult before you go to the room.” B. “Review the criteria and ballots — if in competent doubt, ask another adult before you go to the room, competent.” C. “Review the criteria and ballots — if in doubt, ask another competent adult before you go to the room.” D. No change.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

32. Short Answer: Rewrite this sentence to ensure logical clarity. “To receive a rank and score from a judge without any comments to justify or support the decision, nothing is more frustrating!”

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33. Which word should replace “matches” in the sentence “Make sure your rankings on the individual ballots matches the master ballot,” to demonstrate proper subject-verb agreement? A. matched B. match C. matching D. No change. 34. Which word should be capitalized in this sentence, “Although it is not necessary, most judges have students sign in on the board with their speaker code, title and author of selection”? A. Judges B. Title C. Author D. No change. Read the following letter of recommendation. To Whom It May Concern: I am writing to recommend Jennifer Fountain for your program. I have known Jennifer since August of this year, when she came to school a week before it began to find out if she was eligible to take IB English. Jennifer was particularly memorable to me not only because of her initiative, but because of her story. She had been homeschooled until this year, and still managed to take and excel in AP courses. She was curious to find out if she could also add the additional burden of IB to her senior year in high school. When I explained all the catching up she would have to do, she did not flinch. She simply responded ecstatically You mean I can still do the IB work I don’t have to be enrolled in regular English 12? I will do anything you ask me to do!

Practice Test

To hear that from a parent is one thing, but to hear it from a student is something else entirely. Its novel. I haltingly gave her a book to read for the summer reading assignment, which was due less than a week from the day I was giving it to her. She did not blink. Instead, she read the entire novel over the weekend, and submitted her work first thing with the other students. The behavior impressed me, as did the quality of her work. Indeed, it is rare that I write a recommendation for a student in the first quarter of my class for a November deadline if I have not taught her before. Jennifer has done nothing but impress me as good natured, hard-working, thoughtful and diligent.

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Jennifer takes every opportunity to improve her already excellent work. I allow for re-writes in my class, and Jennifer re-writes everything. This knowledge of the writing process and willingness to improve shows a philosophy it takes most students four years of college to master: writing is rewriting. Jennifer demonstrates an ideology that is the embodiment of the striving for perfection; though I doubt she would be so cliché as to word it like that. When it is true, though, it is true. She never takes offense, either, when I criticize her work. She is earnest in her desire to improve, and seeks me out for counsel often. Jennifer is brilliant, she tries her best. Jennifer’s accomplishments are not simply limited to the classroom, therefore. I coach volleyball and was surprised to see her leading the way on our track team at after school practices. Though I barely know her, it takes a lot of courage to submerge into public school in the way Jennifer has, I am incredibly proud and in awe of her drive. She is very friendly, and her interests expand beyond school and its sports. She also has experience with the responsibility of caring for horses, teaching lessons and organizing events on a larger scale with her church youth group. It is without a moment’s hesitation that I recommend Jennifer Fountain. I finds her competent, capable, enjoyable and exceptionally intrinsically motivated, which I believe is likely from the years of home schooling. Jennifer is a wonderful student, and I am certain she will make a wonderful addition to your University. Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any questions about Jennifer.

35. Eliminate the wordiness in this sentence, “I haltingly gave her a book to read for the summer reading assignment, which was due less than a week from the day I was giving it to her.” A. “I gave her a book to read for the summer reading assignment, which was due less than a week from the day I was giving it to her.” B. “I haltingly gave her a book for the summer reading assignment, which was due less than a week from the day I was giving it to her.” C. “I haltingly gave her a book, which was due less than a week from the day I was giving it to her.”

Reasoning Through Language Arts

D. No change.

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36. Which word should replace “therefore” in the sentence “Jennifer’s accomplishments are not simply limited to the classroom, therefore”? A. however B. although C. as such D. no change

37. Correct the run-on sentence, “Jennifer is brilliant, she tries her best.” (This might be a drop-down question type on the GED ®test.) A. Jennifer is brilliant, and she tries her best. B. Jennifer is brilliant she tries her best. C. Jennifer is brilliant, tries her best. D. No change. 38. How should this sentence be properly punctuated, “She simply responded ecstatically You mean I can still do the IB work I don’t have to be enrolled in regular English 12? I will do anything you ask me to do!”

39. What should replace “its” in the sentence, “Its novel”? A. A B. It is C. It’s D. No change. 40. How can this sentence “Though I barely know her, it takes a lot of courage to submerge into public school in the way Jennifer has, I am incredibly proud and in awe of her drive” be reworded to avoid the dangling modifier? A. I barely know her, it takes a lot of courage to submerge into public school in the way Jennifer has, I am incredibly proud and in awe of her drive. B. I am incredibly proud and in awe of her drive, though I barely know her, it takes a lot of courage to submerge into public school in the way Jennifer has. C. It takes a lot of courage to submerge into public school in the way Jennifer has, and though I barely know her, I am incredibly proud and in awe of her drive. D. No change.

Practice Test 43

41. What word should be replaced to avoid informal usage in the sentence “Jennifer demonstrates an ideology that is the embodiment of the striving for perfection; though I doubt she would be so cliché as to word it like that”? A. cliché B. ideology C. embodiment D. No change. 42. Correct the subject-verb agreement in the sentence, “I finds her competent, capable, enjoyable and exceptionally intrinsically motivated, which I believe is likely from the years of home schooling.” A. I find her competent, capable, enjoyable and exceptionally intrinsically motivated, which I believe is likely from the years of home schooling. B. I found her competent, capable, enjoyable and exceptionally intrinsically motivated, which I believe is likely from the years of home schooling. C. I finding her competent, capable, enjoyable and exceptionally intrinsically motivated, which I believe is likely from the years of home schooling. D. No change. Read the following report about a blind cook who turned into a Master Chef. If you watched season three of Fox TV’s reality cooking show MasterChef you remember the big smile that lit up Christine Ha’s face every time she impressed the judges with her bold flavors and especially when her threecourse meal of Vietnamese comfort food won Ha the “MasterChef” title.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

What viewers, casual, may not have realized right away is that the amateur cook from Houston, Texas, is blind. In 2003, Ha was diagnosed with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a rare neurological condition that deteriorates the optic nerves and spinal cord. By 2007, Ha had lost most of her vision. But she had regained her love of reading, through help from the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS).

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“[NLS] reignited my love for literature. It was what kept me sane when I went through my first bouts of NMO,” says Ha, who also authors the blog theblindcook.com. “When I went through some of my worst health issues in 2003 — complete paralysis from my neck down due to spinal inflammation, and complete blindness — all I could do was lie in bed and listen to NLS audiobooks.”

NLS, part of the Library of Congress, oversees a free reading program for U.S. residents and citizens living abroad who are blind, have low vision, or cannot holds a book because of a physical disability. NLS patrons may choose from tens of thousands of books and dozens of magazines in audio and braille — including dozens of cookbooks, such as “O, the Oprah Magazine Cookbook” and titles by Julia Child, James Beard, and other famous foodies. NLS also loans the portable playback equipment needed to read its audiobooks. Computer-savvy patrons’ may access books online through the NLS Braille and Audio Reading Download (BARD) service. Ha, who is pursuing a master of fine arts degree at the University of Houston, always has a book checked out from NLS. Recently she was reading Gail Caldwell’s “Let’s take the long way home” in braille. And she currently is working on her “MasterChef” cookbook, which is set for a spring 2013 release. Disabilities do not need to stand in the way of our dreams; this is something that has been proven throughout the ages. If you have a problem, you can always find a way to get over it, get through it, or around it.

43. Correct the subject-verb agreement in this sentence, “NLS, part of the Library of Congress, oversees a free reading program for U.S. residents and citizens living abroad who are blind, have low vision, or cannot holds a book because of a physical disability.” A. “NLS, part of the Library of Congress, oversees a free reading program for U.S. residents and citizen living abroad who are blind, have low vision, or cannot holds a book because of a physical disability.” B. “NLS, part of the Library of Congress, oversee a free reading program for U.S. residents and citizens living abroad who are blind, have low vision, or cannot holds a book because of a physical disability.” C. “NLS, part of the Library of Congress, oversees a free reading program for U.S. residents and citizens living abroad who are blind, have low vision, or cannot hold a book because of a physical disability.” D. No change. 44. Which word should replace the word “through” in the sentence, “But she had regained her love of reading, through help from the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS).” A. thorough B. threw C. thru D. No change. Practice Test 45

45. How should the parallelism be properly written in the sentence “If you have a problem, you can always find a way to get over it, get through it, or around it”? A. “If you have a problem, you can always find a way to get over it, get through it, or get around it.” B. “If you have a problem, you can always find a way to get over it, through it, or get around it.” C. “If you have a problem, you can always find a way to get over it.” D. No change. 46. Correct the capitalization in this sentence, “Recently she was reading Gail Caldwell’s “Let’s take the long way home” in braille.” A. “Let’s Take the long Way Home” B. “let’s take the long way home” C. “Let’s Take the Long Way Home” D. No change. 47. Correct the possession in the following sentence, “Computer-savvy patrons’ may access books online through the NLS Braille and Audio Reading Download (BARD) service.” A. patron’s B. savvy’s C. patrons D. No change.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

48. Insert the proper punctuation marks into this sentence, “If you watched season three of Fox TV’s reality cooking show MasterChef you remember the big smile that lit up Christine Ha’s face every time she impressed the judges with her bold flavors and especially when her threecourse meal of Vietnamese comfort food won Ha the “Master­ Chef ” title.”

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49. Eliminate the wordiness in the sentence “Ha, who is pursuing a master of fine arts degree at the University of Houston, always has a book checked out from NLS.” A. Ha, who is pursuing a master of fine arts degree at the University of Houston, has a book checked out from NLS.  B. Ha, pursuing a master of fine arts degree at the University of Houston, always has a book checked out from NLS.  C. Ha, who is pursuing a master at the University of Houston, always has a book checked out from NLS.  D. No change. 50. Short Answer: Rewrite the sentence “What viewers, casual, may not have realized right away is that the amateur cook from Houston, Texas, is blind” to ensure logical clarity.

Practice Test 47

REASONING THROUGH LANGUAGE ARTS Extended-Response Section 45 minutes

Read the following excerpt from Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s “First Inaugural Address” and the article, “Making the Right Decision for the Long Term.” Analyze both the speech and the article to determine how a person can overcome financial hardships in order to plan a bright future. Use relevant and specific references to each text to support your response. “First Inaugural Address” So, first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself —  nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance. In every dark hour of our national life, a leadership of frankness and of vigor has met with that understanding and support of the people themselves which is essential to victory. And I am convinced that you will again give that support to leadership in these critical days. In such a spirit on my part and on yours we face our common difficulties. They concern, thank God, only material things. Values have shrunk to fantastic levels; taxes have risen; our ability to pay has fallen; government of all kinds is faced by serious curtailment of income; the means of exchange are frozen in the currents of trade; the withered leaves of industrial enterprise lie on every side; farmers find no markets for their produce; and the savings of many years in thousands of families are gone. More important, a host of unemployed citizens face the grim problem of existence, and an equally great number toil with little return. Only a foolish optimist can deny the dark realities of the moment. And yet our distress comes from no failure of substance. We are stricken by no plague of locusts. Compared with the perils which our forefathers conquered, because they believed and were not afraid, we have still much to be thankful for. Nature still offers her bounty and human efforts have multiplied it. Plenty is at our doorstep, but a generous use of it languishes in the very sight of the supply. Primarily, this is because the rulers of the exchange of mankind’s goods have failed, through their own stubbornness and their own incompetence, have admitted their failure, and have abdicated. Practices of the unscrupulous money changers stand indicted in the court of public opinion, rejected by the hearts and minds of men. True, they have tried. But their efforts have been cast in the pattern of an outworn tradition. Faced by failure of credit, they have proposed only the lending of more money. Stripped of the lure of profit by which to induce our people to follow their false leadership, they have resorted to exhortations, pleading tearfully for restored confidence. They only know the rules of a generation of self-seekers. They have no vision, and when there is no vision the people perish.

Practice Test 49

Yes, the money changers have fled from their high seats in the temple of our civilization. We may now restore that temple to the ancient truths. The measure of that restoration lies in the extent to which we apply social values more noble than mere monetary profit. Happiness lies not in the mere possession of money; it lies in the joy of achievement, in the thrill of creative effort. The joy, the moral stimulation of work no longer must be forgotten in the mad chase of evanescent profits. These dark days, my friends, will be worth all they cost us if they teach us that our true destiny is not to be ministered unto but to minister to ourselves, to our fellow men.

“Making the Right Decision for the Long-Term” As homeowners struggle with the recession and impact of declining home prices, some are considering whether to continue paying their mortgage or simply walk away from the obligation. As a homeowner, when you contemplate the recent decline in your home’s value, perhaps below your mortgage balance, you may consider options that normally would never have entered your mind. Regardless of what you might hear from relatives, friends or advisors, you need to carefully consider the long-term impact of this important decision.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

Like selling any asset at a loss during a depressed period, walking away from your property may not be a smart move from a longer-term perspective. While the current housing crisis is severe, past history provides some perspective. Historically, markets have recovered over time. One example of a regional price decline and subsequent recovery was in Southern California, which experienced a severe downturn in the early 1990s that saw home prices decline by 21 percent from their peak. However, prices recovered at an average rate of 6.9 percent per quarter, annualized for the next 14 quarters. Homeowners who purchased at the peak of the cycle in 1990 recouped their lost capital 10 years after the downturn began. Appreciation rates vary, and markets recover unevenly with some experiencing rapid price appreciation, making it difficult to time the market. Therefore, it’s generally the long-term holder that benefits from appreciation.

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In many communities, the cost of renting can be more than the after-tax cost of mortgage payments on a house. Renting does not provide the long-term benefits of ownership. These benefits include a forced savings plan (paying down principal and building equity over time) and stability of knowing you will not be forced to move at your landlord’s whim. Unlike other financial assets, homeownership is also tied to factors that should not be underestimated, such as the stability of a sustainable home for your children and pets, as well as being part of a community. Even if your home’s value has fallen significantly, tax benefits and compounding appreciation rates can still be on your side. U.S. tax laws still favor homeownership, particularly for those in higher tax brackets. The tax shelter of deducting mortgage interest and property taxes can reduce the overall tax burden and enable individuals to keep more of their income.

Defaulting on your mortgage can have implications beyond just losing your home. The familiar saying, “My bank really owns my home” does not reflect the realities of ownership. Consider this: Regardless of the size of the loan you owe on the property, if you default, the lender must go through a lengthy and public process to take those ownership rights away from you. The process of foreclosure can be particularly damaging to your credit. Your credit ratings are a valuable asset that should be protected. Defaulting on a debt obligation will not only impact your long-term credit ratings but could limit your ability to secure a new place to live, as landlords often check credit ratings prior to renting. Also, your ability to qualify for certain employment, maintain a small business line of credit or obtain financing to purchase a car may be impacted as well as potentially taking several years to reestablish your credit ratings. These are just some of the considerations in evaluating whether to stay in your home. Both economic and personal decisions should be balanced before making a short-term decision that may not be advantageous in the long-term.

Practice Test 51

Answers Reading Section 1. C. This article considers both the positive and negative aspects of sudden death, and discusses the differing opinions about it. The text does not give a specific opinion about death itself being good or bad (A), and although the author may seem to imply that sudden death is the better option (D), he makes no definitive statement regarding this. The author only states that religion seems to prefer a slow death (B). 2. B. The author discusses the conflicting stance between religion and Roman philosophy that sudden death is or is not preferable. Because this is true, you can rule out answer (A). Although the author does discuss intoxication, he does not make the conclusive statement that these two things are mutually exclusive (C). Finally, while the author does discuss a person’s habits in terms of intoxication (D), he makes no claim that the regularity of this will determine a person’s fate. 3. D. You can infer from the sentence, “On the other hand, the divine Litany of our English Church, when breathing forth supplications, as if in some representative character for the whole human race prostrate before God, places such a death in the very van of horrors,” that “prostrate” means “at the mercy of ” God (D). This is because the sentence means the Church thinks it has the corner on human servitude (supplication) to God. To this end, “vertically positioned” (A), “in arms against” (B), and “angrily opposing” (C), simply do not make sense should you replace the words “prostrate before” with these phrases.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

4. B.

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By beginning with this question, the author indicates he will answer, or at least flesh out, the implications of this idea. You should already know that he presents conflicting information in this paragraph, so you can rule out (C). Although it may have the effect of forcing the readers to ask themselves this question, this does not warrant the development or assertion of a main idea itself (A). Because the author endeavors himself to answer this question, you can tell that he is not asking someone else to answer it for him, as (D) indicates.

5. B. This answer is a reason, not a claim. It is indicating that the scripture does not provide evidence for the claim, thus it is the reasoning and evidence itself. (A) is a claim that was supported by the sentence immediately preceding it. (C) is a claim with its reasoning coupled in the same sentence. (D) is a claim the author spends the rest of the paragraph reasoning out. 6. A. This sentence is, in fact, the main idea, which is that different parts of society view sudden death as either desirable or despicable. (B) is a bit of reasoning which supports one conflicting side of the argument, as is (C). Neither of these is explicitly the main idea, though both are connected to it. (D) is simply a conclusive statement that, when in context of the whole passage, helps to support the main idea — that the method of death is up for debate — but on its own is simply reasoning regarding the drunkard’s method of death. 7. C. “Infirmity” simply indicates illness, which is not directly qualified by “suffering,” though it can be inferred. “Suffering” is a harsher word that takes human emotion into consideration. To that end, if the author had used “suffering” instead of “illness,” he would indicate more directly that the Church is cruel for allowing the misery to continue. Therefore, you can rule out both (A) and (B), which indicate the author would be in favor of the church’s position — which should have been clear simply from the sentence itself. There is definitely a change in tone, so you can rule out (D). 8. A. Both articles address this issue. Although (B) is somewhat handled by the second article, it is not a thematic idea presented in the first. Similarly, (C) is discussed in the first article, but it is not a large enough focus of the second to be considered a theme. Finally, while (D) might be something you can infer from the information presented in both articles, it is not a theme for either. 9. Answers will vary. A correct answer might look like this: It is likely that the second article was written at an earlier time than the first article, as the statistic for American reliance on seafood consumption has increased by the time of writing the first article. The effect is not particularly different from one article to the next, as the information is still staggering in both pieces of information. Practice Test 53

10. C. It seems the first article is more concerned with the health aspect of imports, while the second article deals more with the economic hardships regarding importation. Though the second article does mention health, it is far more concerned with our failing economy, and seems to provide the solution to the health problem in its construction. (A) is incorrect because it is likely that both authors would agree that this idea is false. The authors would probably agree to both (B) and (D). 11. D. The purpose of both articles is to inform, true, but the second article offers some sort of positive hopeful motivation, which the first does not. (A) is incorrect because it seems to miss the point of both articles entirely. While (B) may be a correct observation of the two articles, it does not discuss the impact these articles intend to create. Finally, (C) is half way correct, but it misinterprets the impact of the second article — which deals with fiscal impacts, but does not spend any time encouraging readers to be more thrifty. 12. C. The articles both mention iPura, but the first article simply uses it as a hopeful discussion of a means to help decrease food safety issues. The second article realizes the potential for American business to become successful with the problem of food import safety. Both articles consider iPura to be positive, so you can rule out (A), which mentions it as a “scare tactic.” (B) has the emphasis swapped between the two articles, as does (D). 13. A.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

The article is designed to educate Americans about the health problems imported foods can cause. Though iPura is mentioned as a benefit (B), showcasing it is not the intended purpose of the article, rather it is used as a side-comment. Though this article may encourage readers to grow their own food (C), this would be a side-benefit to the article, as it gives no specific direction to do so. Finally, the FDA is actually pardoned within the article by “experts” for its lack of inspection, so you can rule out choice (D).

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14. B. The article seeks to educate its readers on a successful business, which seems to solve two problems at once — hence the title. The article does applaud iPura (A), but this is an example to strengthen the commentary, not the intended purpose. The article does not deal with alternatives to imported foods (C), which would be guidance on how to buy American produce. Although (D) is mentioned in the article, this is the main purpose of the first article, and is only used by the second as a mitigating factor.

15. B. The articles both deal with the problems created by imported foods, but one couches this in economic hardship and the other in health problems. This indicates that the real problem is reliance on imported foods. Although both articles deal with an innovative company, iPura, the two authors would likely disagree on the reasons this company came into existence, so you can rule out (A) and (D), which provide those varying opinions. Although both authors agree that health care is a factor with imported foods (C), the articles indicate a disagreement about the priority of health care, as one discusses health care in tandem with money. 16. C. A premise is the major argument or impact of an article, and in this one the author encourages the readers to make their own plan for the future so as not to suffer from the consequences. Although (A) might be an inference a reader could make, it is certainly not the focus or point of the article. (B) is a correct observation, but it does not directly answer the question. Finally, (D) might be a potential point a reader might take away from the article, but it certainly is not the point the author attempts to convey. 17. A. This sentence assumes there is an argument made that “it is better to live longer.” The author, in this instance, considers this and its positive outcomes before continuing on to discuss the true purpose of the article: planning for the downside of what happens when you outlive your spouse. (B) is a piece of information that supports the main argument, but does not indicate conflict. Similarly, (C) and (D) are simply additional pieces of information which support the main ideas presented in the piece. None of the other answer choices indicate a conflicting point of view. 18. Answers will vary. A correct answer may look like this: The author uses subheadings to help organize the article into two different sections. First the author forces readers to consider their own situation, and then the author writes the second subheading to help readers determine their own personal plan. By transitioning in this manner, the author effectively engages readers and accomplishes a very big feat — internalization of the writing for self-application. 19. B.

Practice Test

At its basal level, the article assumes the cause-and-effect relationship that living longer causes you to have decisions to make about how you want to plan for your future. The article makes no argument about how to raise children (A); indeed, it encourages readers to

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take the burden off their children. The argument about the cost of living is actually negated in the article (C), and (D) is the opposite premise of the entire article. 20. A. Because the question asks for different situations, you can immediately rule out (C) and (D) because those answer choices deal with the argument presented within this article. The problem with (B) is that although children and relationships are mentioned, there are no steps provided — such as “employ better communication skills” to help apply to building a relationship. So, (A) is the best choice because it employs the same skills mentioned in this article to a similar, but different in content, type of situation. 21. The correct answer is: B, C, D, and E. (A) is the main idea of the text, so you can tell immediately that it is not a supporting detail. (F) simply asks a question, so you should immediately rule it out. Finally, (G) is a comment of advice, not a detail that supports the main idea. All other answer choices support the main idea that women are outliving men and need to consider the plans they will make for long-term care. 22. C. Because the question asks about clarification, you must draw the parallel relationship between the two pieces of information. (C) is the only one that presents an accurate distinction. Although (A) may seem like a legitimate choice, this would be an answer to a question that asks how the chart disagrees with the article, not clarifies. Although (B) may be a correct observation — that the fine arts projects seem to have the greatest success, these are independent projects, not crowdfunded money options for education. Finally, (D) is another correct observation, but it does not consider the article, so no comparison or clarification is offered.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

23. A.

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The audience can infer from the article and graph that there is a distinctive parallel between crowdfunding and success rates for financial gain. Because the article is suggesting the use of crowdfunding websites, you can rule out (B). Similarly, the article indicates that there has been some success with crowdfund projects such as Kickstarter in regards to helping fund education, so (C) is also ruled out. Clearly, the graph indicates that the arts are supported by crowdfunding (D).

24. D. Although (C) may be a true statement, you are able to assume that the intended audience of the article is students looking to fund their education, so you can rule it out as a reaction. (D) is correct because it is a logical assumption to make that the students, not seeing education listed in the graph, might possibly consider it an endeavor not worth their effort. Finally, the graph does not indicate in any way that traditional methods of financing school are obsolete, so you can rule out (B) as well. 25. D. A person must have vision and drive, but both the article and the graph support the idea that there is money to be made in the internet world of crowdfunding. Although (A) may be true, this information is clearly negated in the chart as it indicates most projects come close to the one million dollar mark. Although (B) and (C) are both easily inferred from the article, they are not supported at all by the graph. 26. A. Once the audience of the article views the evidence in the chart, it is a fair, logical conclusion to draw that the readers may be swayed to attempt other Kickstarter projects such as gaming or photography endeavors. (B) is incorrect because it does not reference the graph, and makes a claim not supported by the article. (C) may be an attractive answer, but the Kickstarter information is applicable to projects, and does not give instructions about how to build a business. Finally, (D) may be an outcome of the two pieces of information, but it is not an application of the information, so it does not answer the question. 27. A. The chart supports the author’s claim that Kickstarter or other crowdsourcing websites can be successful in garnering financial backing. Even if (B) might be true in the success ratio column of the graph, this does not support the author’s claim and should be ignored. (C) is incorrect because the chart does not directly address education as a potential project on Kickstarter. Finally, the chart makes no mention of the time involved in running a Kickstarter project (D). 28. D.

Practice Test

Because the chart shows the success of projects on Kickstarter, it is a logical conclusion to decide that it is a viable option for funding one’s education. There is no basis to decide that Kickstarter makes people happy (A) or that it will be the necessary conclusive item that makes more independent film projects (C). Although (B) might seem correct, ultimately crowdsourcing is presented as an option, not the ultimate or sole solution to the trying times in the economy.

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29. C. Throughout the passage, the author argues that illusion, imagination, and attitude are the elements that make life enjoyable. The author discusses how even adults employ illusion in their jobs, so you can rule out (A) and (B). Although (D) is the next best choice, it is only mentioned in a tertiary way — and in a positive way. The tone of (D) is negative, so you should rule it out as well. 30. B. Technically “fop” means a “dandy,” but from context clues and the subject of the sentence — people’s occupations — you should be able to determine it is some kind of human. This information rules out (A), (C), and (D). 31. D. Although (B) may seem like a viable option, the author would likely argue that illusions are a part of us that we cannot separate, which indicates they do not necessarily make us better people, they are simply a part of who we are. (D) is correct because it embodies this idea. Because of this, you can rule out (A) and (C), which both negate the idea that illusions are integral parts of our personae. 32. C. The author’s sincere effort to include a variety of jobs through a seemingly endless list helps to indicate that no one is immune to imagination and attitude. (A) might seem a viable option, but it deals with figurative language — diction — rather than the syntax — sentence structure — which is what the question asks about. (B) is interesting, but ultimately it is an incorrect assessment — the sentence is not a run-on, so you can rule it out. (D) is a correct observation, but it does not include the second part of the question, which deals with how this structure helps convey the message.

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33. A.

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Emerson plays on people’s emotions as he connects the adults to their youth, as well as our sense of belonging as he describes our own jobs and relates to us. He makes no reference to tradition (B), and though the piece is logically constructed (C) in an easy to follow manner, there is very little analysis of cause and effect or use of statistics to argue his point. The piece uses very little ethical appeal (D), such as the citation of authority or research to prove the author’s integrity.

34. B. The author’s main goal here is to personally connect with the audience and encourage them to enjoy life and approach it with a positive attitude. The piece does not deal with fate or luck (A), and though (C) might seem like a logical answer, it would be more of a sideeffect than an intended outcome of the writing of this piece. Similarly, (D) is an acceptable answer, but it is not as precise in the analysis of the author’s intent as is choice (B). 35. D. This is the order in which the events unfold in this passage: (A), (E), (C), (D), (B), (F). 36. A. In this line, Brontë indicates that women have equally as passionate feelings about work and occupations as men do, which was a relatively unorthodox view at the time of the writing. Nonetheless, the explicit mentions of equality between the sexes in this sentence should answer this question, provided you know the definition of feminist: someone who believes women should be treated equally to men. To that end, (B) is incorrect because it does not deal with equality among men and women; (C), too, is incorrect and especially so because it specifically describes Sophie as vapid, which is an insult. (D), too, is incorrect, though it may be alluring because it shows Jane has a modicum of power in decision making, but it is not as precise in answering the question as (A). 37. Answers will vary. An acceptable response may read: Jane is judgmental of Grace Poole, as is evidenced by her parenthetical note regarding Grace’s alcohol use. Additionally, Jane finds Grace a very strange person, especially considering her random laughter and odd behavior. 38. B. This is an exaggerated description of internal conflict, and using fermentation to describe it indicates a sour feeling and building pressure within. (A) might seem a viable answer, but it is incorrect because repetition is not figurative language. (C), too, is incorrect because it does not talk about the effect itself, it merely indicates that the phrase is a good choice of description. Finally, (D) is incorrect because ferment is both a metaphor and hyperbole. 39. D. Practice Test

You can tell from Jane’s diatribe regarding female occupation that Jane is not the type of person to sit idly by. This is substantiated in the final paragraph when she endeavors a two-mile walk to post a letter, and in the descriptions of her attempts to engage Sophie

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in conversation. (A) is incorrect; the events in this section do not definitively relate back to this particular paragraph. (B) is incorrect because no character other than Jane herself is described (D). Finally, you cannot choose (C) because even if it is correct, you have no basis for comparison unless you have read the entire novel, and this question assumes you have not. 40. C. Jane is interested in many things, as illustrated in this passage, and she discusses her beliefs at length. (A) is incorrect because Jane actually demonstrates a great deal of strength in this passage. Although Jane is interested in other characters (B), as is evidenced by her discussion of them, there is no reason to determine she cares more about them than she does herself, especially given the information presented in the first paragraph. Finally, there is no reason to determine Jane is cruel (D). Even if she calls Sophie vapid, she invites Adele to visit and suffers Grace Poole, who she considers slightly morally reprehensible.

Language Section 1. A. Union Station is a proper noun and needs to be capitalized. (B) is incorrect because “Mr. Older and Much Richer,” too is a proper noun and is correctly capitalized in the sentence. (C) is also incorrect because it avoids the capitalization of the proper noun, and replaces the correctly written word “to” with its incorrect homonym “too.” 2. The correct answer is: “I never dated him, never would, actually, and had never given him any reason to judge and exploit my character flaws, let alone those of my whole sex.” (This is a long, complex sentence but “let alone those of my whole sex” is a dependent clause that requires combination with the independent clause preceding it.)

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3. C.

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The word “their” refers to the women who are searching for men. The word “women” is plural, so the pronoun that goes along with it must be plural as well. “Her” is singular. (A) changes the wording to something potentially correct, but ignores the pronoun agreement error. (B) makes a capitalization error and ignores the pronoun error. 4. C. This is a tricky question. The present tense of the word “realize” would indicate that the speaker should speak in the present tense for the entire sentence. Or, the sentence should

all be written in past tense. This sentence continues in the past, reflective tense of the rest of the passage (“had”) and then switches to the present tense because it makes an observation about the speaker herself at ALL times — including the present time of writing. This means changing “realize” to “realized” (A) is incorrect because the problem of tenses is switched. (B) simply removes the colon, a stylistic choice which is possibly correct, but ignores the tense problem. 5. This should read: Wouldn’t it have been more productive, if I was indeed BEING selfish, to say something like, “Hey. You know, that’s kind of rude, what you’re doing there. I don’t have a bike with me, but if I did, I might like to park it there, instead of at the other, far less accessible to YOU, (but not anyone with a bicycle) spaces. Why don’t you move somewhere else?” Or, “Hey. You’re in the way of my invisible entourage. Move it.” There should be quotation marks around the dialogue, and because the first sentence is very long, it required some parentheses around the parenthetical side comment. Additionally, due to length, the fragment has been left in for style in the second sentence. 6. A. To avoid the informal usage, the sentence must eliminate the colloquial version of the word “suburbs” — “’burbs,” correct the capitalization error, and fix the made-up word “intern-esque.” (B) is incorrect because it only deals with the capitalization error and adjusts a proper noun, which, while perhaps sarcastic, is not necessarily informal. Similarly, (C) only fixes half of the problem with informal register. 7. D. The pronoun agreement is correct, as “women” is plural and requires a plural pronoun. (A) is an incorrect homonym meaning “they are,” which does not make sense in context, as is (B), the homonym meaning “that place.” “Her” (C) would be correct if the sentence was written for just one woman, as in “I guess in the past the woman has typically been the one to survive off her husband’s much fatter paycheck, but still, a woman cooks, cleans, mothers children, entertains at least five full-time-stay-at-home-OTHER jobs at that, AND works on a budget of what is allowed to her.” 8. B.

Practice Test

To ensure proper coordination, the sentence requires the conjunction “or” to make the first half of it an independent clause. (A) removes the colon, which is necessary for such a massive list. (C) is the second best answer as it incorporates another plausible way to separate a list, but it does not solve the error in coordination.

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9. C. The first half of this sentence is a dependent clause and while technically acceptable to be written this way, it confuses the intention of the sentence by placing this clause first. This is corrected by reversing the clause order. (A) is incorrect because it does not fix the awkward sentence, indeed it, like (B), makes the sentence even more awkward. 10. C. In this case, “teachers” is not a possessive noun, so it does not require an apostrophe. (A) changes it to plural possessive case, but again, “teachers” is only plural in this sentence, not possessive. (B) ignores the error and changes a different word, “they’ll,” which is actually an incorrect contraction for “they will,” which is not what the sentence reads. 11. A. “At first” is a conditional modifier, so it is important to place it in a section of the sentence that makes the most sense. You must consider the context of the sentence. (B) indicates that allowing students to hang out in the Cafeteria became a bad strategy, and nothing indicates that in the following sentence. Similarly, (C) indicates that the Cafeteria’s status would change, but this, too, is unsubstantiated. Written as is, the sentence indicates that the sentiment has changed, which does not make sense since there was “some disagreement.” 12. B. The run-on happens between the two independent clauses, the second of which reads, “teachers know they are monitored there.” There are two ways to fix this sentence: The first is (B). The other is to split this into two complete sentences, “When kids are not attending LEARN, or when they are chronically Supervised, teachers can send their students to ISS. Teachers know they are monitored there.” (C) attempts this, but puts the period and capitalization in the wrong place. (A) compounds the run-on by removing the commas.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

13.

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The correct answer is: Good students have all Cs or above, Monitored have 1 D or F, and Supervised have multiple Ds and Fs. (Only lower-cased letters require an apostrophe when they are used as plurals; there needs to be commas between the items which are: Good students, Monitored students, and Supervised students.) 14. B. The problem with the sentence written as it is, is that it has a dangling preposition at the end. True this is corrected in (A), but by removing the phrase “we learned,” the meaning of the sentence is adjusted, and that is not what the question asks you to do. Choice (B)

fixes it without leaving the awkward infinitive at the end — and fixes the incorrect assumption that the parents will be “at” school. (C) completely adjusts the meaning of the sentence. 15. D. This sentence is correctly written, and replacing the word “to” with either of its homonyms, “too” (A) or “two” (B), the sentence meaning shifts respectively to: “not nearly enough also make this model work . . . ” and “not nearly enough 2 make this model work . . . ” (C) is incorrect because replacing the word “to” with “that” simply makes the sentence incoherent. 16. B. “Students” is a plural noun, and therefore needs the verb constructed to plurality, which in this case is “need.” Students need. (A) is incorrect because it does not fix the error and replaces “they” with “them” — an incorrect pronoun for the case. (C) is incorrect because it ignores the error and creates another one by making a possessive noun out of a plural one. 17. C. The first clause is a dependent, conditional clause that requires a conditional word, like “Since.” The transitional word “However” indicates that there would be some contrary information presented from the previous sentence, which in this case is not correct. (A) is incorrect because it would leave in the comma, which does not make grammatical sense. Changing “However” to “Therefore” (B) would indicate that the sentence will provide some sort of conclusive argument, which the sentence does not. 18. “We must change our model to follow theirs.” In this instance, “It is imperative” is redundant and unnecessary to the meaning of the sentence, which is simply a declarative statement: “We must change our model to follow theirs.” 19. B. The fragment in this instance is the phrase “In science” because it does not contain a subject and a verb. Although (A) corrects the conjunction beginning of the sentence, it does not address the fragment, which is what the instructions ask. (C) is also incorrect because it creates a run-on sentence and does not correct the fragment. Practice Test 63

20. A. In this instance, the pronoun is referring to the subject in a previous sentence, “the AP Physics teacher.” This is one person, so the pronoun selected must be singular, in this instance, “he.” (B) is incorrect because “him decided” is an incorrect pronoun-verb agreement. Finally, although (C) does create pronoun agreement between “they” and “their,” it is incorrect agreement with the antecedent, “AP Physics teacher.” 21. C. Although it is done for style, a correct sentence never begins with a conjunction. Therefore, it must be replaced with a different transitional word, and “However” works in this instance because it is hinged upon the idea presented in the previous sentiments — that the speaker does not like science or math. (A) and (B) are simply diction choices, which do not correct the problem with transition. 22. C. “Student Teacher” is not a proper noun and should not be capitalized. (A) is incorrect because “content” is not a proper noun. (B) is close to correct, but it assumes “teacher” is a proper noun, which it is not. 23. A. The problem with this sentence is that it begins with a dependent clause in a conditional sense. (A) corrects this by replacing the phrase “being that” with “Because,” which corrects the subordination. (B) might sound correct, but it does not fix the error in subordination. (C) might be correct if the comma was changed to a semi-colon. Otherwise, it is a run-on sentence.

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24. B.

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The subject of the sentence is “we,” and though the infinitive verb “to relate” comes well after the interceding phrase, it still must agree with the subject. We “relate,” not “relates.” (A) is incorrect because it ignores this problem and changes an arbitrary word, “stud.” (C) is incorrect because it, too, ignores the problem even though it removes the intercession. 25. D. “Knew” is the correct past tense of “know,” and it is the correct word in this sentence. Replacing it with its homonym “new” (A) changes the meaning of the sentence, and makes no logical sense. Using the present tense “know” (B) would disrupt the past tense used in the rest of the essay. Replacing it with the word “think” (C) creates the same problem.

26. A. The word “heck” is a slang term used for effect in this instance, but it is not part of standard, formal English. (B) is simply a style choice that does not remove the colloquialism, as is (C). 27. B. The dependent clause “so wear comfortable clothing,” must hinge logically behind its independent clause because of the word “so.” It makes logical sense to switch the order of the sentence rather than rewrite the entire thing, which may change the meaning of it. (A) simply changes a homonym, but does not fix the subordination problem. (C) might be correct if the comma was replaced with a semicolon and the word “so” were removed. 28. “If your code is posted, go to the Tab Room or ballot table to pick up your ballots and the list of students in your room.” This sentence requires a comma between the dependent clause “if your code is posted” and the rest of the independent, declarative sentence. The additional comma between “Room” and “or” was not necessary because it is not a conjunction. 29. B. You can tell from the sentence — “Claim a seat” that there is more than one judge enjoying the lounge; otherwise, there would be no need to claim anything because the audience of the sentence would be the only judge. Plural possessives require an apostrophe after the “s.” Therefore, (A) is incorrect because it does not show possession. (C) is incorrect because it misappropriates the possession to the lounge. 30. A. The pronoun “she” is actually referring to the “students” in the previous sentence. Because the antecedent is plural, so, too, must be the pronoun. In this instance, “she” should be replaced with “they.” Replacing the “they”s with “she”s (B) will only continue to confuse the pronoun and the subject-verb agreement, “she can perform when she return” would require “return” to be adjusted to “returns.” (C) does not correct the number agreement and chooses the incorrect pronoun. 31. C.

Practice Test

“Competent” means capable, and so you should know that it is modifying the word “adult” (C). The sentence does not make sense if you modify the “criteria” (A) or “doubt” (B) with capable.

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32. The correct answer is “Nothing is more frustrating than to receive a rank and score from a judge without any comments to justify or support the decision!” This sentence creates a dependent clause where none should exist. Rewriting it in this way creates one full, declarative sentence. 33. B. “Rankings” is plural and requires a plural verb form of the word “match” — “rankings match.” You can tell that you do not need to go change the verb tense to past (A) because “Make sure” is a present tense demand. It would make sense to change to word “matches” to “matching” (C) if the word “are” was placed before it; however, this would be passive voice. 34. D. This sentence contains no proper nouns, and there is no reason to consider “judges” (A), “title” (B), or “author”(C) proper. 35. B. The wordiness comes into this sentence with the repetition of the word “read” and its other form “reading.” This can be eliminated by removing “to read.” The meaning of the sentence remains intact. (A) simply removes the word “haltingly,” which does not affect the wordiness of the sentence. (C) is illogical since it would indicate the book itself was due less than a week later, which changes the meaning of the sentence. 36. A.

Reasoning Through Language Arts

This sentence includes a transitional word, “therefore,” which does not make sense in the context of the meaning. This sentence does not provide some conclusive, definitive statement; it is contrary or enlightening to the information presented earlier, so it should be replaced with “however.” “Either,” would work, too. In the context, “Although” (B) makes no sense, and though “as such” (C) makes logical sense, it is an awkward construction which generally begins a sentence rather than concludes it.

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37. A. Though it is short, this is a run-on sentence because it fuses two short, independent clauses together. To fix this, one must use a conjunction (A). Removing the comma does not correct the problem (B), nor does removing the word “she” (C).

38. The correct answer is She simply responded ecstatically, “You mean I can still do the IB work? I don’t have to be enrolled in regular English 12? I will do anything you ask me to do!” When punctuating dialogue, there must be a comma before the quotation marks, and because the line the child delivers is interrogative, her first sentence must end with a question mark. 39. B. This is a difficult question because technically both (B) and (C) are correct. “It’s” is simply a contraction of the words “it” and “is”. However, because this is a formal piece of writing, contractions should be avoided when possible, so (B). (A) would create a sentence fragment, and obviously (D) is incorrect because “its” is the possessive form of the word “it.” 40. C. The problem with the modifier in this sentence is that it is modifying the courage clause rather than the pride clause. This is only true in answer (C). Choice (A) simply removes the word “Though,” which does not fix the modification problem. (B) is actually a run-on sentence, which simply replaces one error with another. 41. D. None of the answer choices, “cliché” (A), “ideology” (B), or “embodiment” (C) represents informal usage; in fact, each word is particularly formal. 42. A. The subject, “I,” is singular and requires a singular form of the verb “find.” This is true in (A). (B) may seem like a correct response, but it is incorrect because it shifts tense in the sentence — “I believe,” rather than “I believed.” It is always best to stay in the same tense when possible. (C) is incorrect because it would require “I am finding” in order to be grammatically sound, and this is wordy and passive voice. 43. C.

Practice Test

This is a complex sentence with multiple subjects. The first is NLS, which is singular; the second is “residents and citizens” which is plural. The second subject is not part of an independent clause, so the word “holds” is the problem in this sentence because it is not a verb belonging to the second subject. (C) is the only response which handles this. (A) merely changes the word “citizens” to its singular form, which creates more problems with agreement in the sentence. (B), too, creates a problem with agreement — “NLS oversee” does not make sense.

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44. D. The sentence, as written, employs the correct word “through” to indicate a means to an end. Replacing it with either of its homonym, “threw” (B) does not make sense as it would indicate throwing, and “thru” (C) is technically an acceptable response, but it creates a different problem, which is informality. “Thorough” (A) is a different word, completely, and including it would alter the meaning of the sentence, and it would have to be constructed in an entirely different way to even make grammatical sense. 45. A. The problem with the parallelism in this sentence is the removal of the final repetitive construction “get *insert preposition*.” To be correct parallel structure, all aspects of the list should be structured in the same manner. (A) fixes this problem, but (B) simply moves the incorrect parallel to a different part of the list. (C) removes the parallel structure entirely. 46. C. When capitalizing book titles, the first word must always be capitalized, so you can immediately rule out (B). Then, all proper nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and subordinating conjunctions should also be capitalized, which would include the adjective “Long” (A). The article “the” does not need to be capitalized in a title, so the correct choice is (C). 47. C. In this instance, there is no need for the word “patrons” — nor “savvy” to be possessive — (A) and (B), respectively. (D) is also incorrect because in its current state, the possessive is for a plural, which is still unnecessary.

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48.

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The correct answer is, If you watched season three of Fox TV’s reality cooking show, “MasterChef,” you remember the big smile that lit up Christine Ha’s face every time she impressed the judges with her bold flavors, and especially when her three-course meal of Vietnamese comfort food won Ha the “MasterChef ” title. When introducing a modifier, in this case, “MasterChef,” it must be surrounded by commas. Additionally, the title should be underlined. A comma must be inserted to create a correct compound sentence before the “and,” and “three-course” must be hyphenated.

49. B. Although this sentence is technically acceptable as it is, the wordiness comes into play with the unnecessary phrase, “who is.” This can be eliminated and the sentence still has the same, exact effect. This is dissimilar to (A), which indicates it is unusual for Ha to have a book checked out by eliminating the word “always.” Similarly, removing “fine arts degree” (C) takes away some of the important information presented in the sentence. 50. The correct answer is “What casual viewers may not have realized right away is that the amateur cook from Houston, Texas, is blind.” This sentence simply has a misplaced modifier that can be corrected by moving in front of its subject, “viewers.”

Extended Response Outline for response: In order to write an accurate response to this prompt, you need to focus on the thesis stem given to you in the wording of the prompt: how a person can overcome financial hardships in order to plan a bright future. This should be the focus of your entire response, and you should never vary from whatever argument you construct. Before you begin, it is important to analyze both pieces of information presented to you. In this instance, you have a presidential address during one of the most difficult financial times in American history, and an article that discusses the consequences of making rash decisions in an economic crisis, specifically regarding the choice to walk away from a mortgage. You will notice that the orator in the piece has a hopeful and reassuring approach to the struggle, and the article has a bit more of a negative, warning tone. This is a minor difference between the two works, and your response should probably address it at some point. A good thesis may be something along the lines of: a person can overcome financial hardships in order to plan for a bright future by minimizing fear and fighting through the hard times. This is an easy argument to discuss, and it is relevant to both pieces, as FDR addresses fear and struggle at length, and the article, too deals with making plans.

Practice Test

As you structure your response, you should always keep the thesis in mind. Because this thesis is an easy map to follow, you know that your first order of business is to talk about the methods a person can use to minimize fear. As you do this, you should make references to both the speech and the article about the advice given therein. Some relevant quotes you should probably include are: from the speech, “So, first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself —  nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert

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retreat into advance” and “We are stricken by no plague of locusts. Compared with the perils which our forefathers conquered, because they believed and were not afraid, we have still much to be thankful for.” It would be a good idea to discuss the situation of the American people during FDR’s 1st inauguration, if you know that it was during The Great Depression. These quotes will help you make the argument that despite dark and trying times, it is fear which makes them difficult, and the past has shown us how we have persevered. Then, you can further discuss the evidence from the article, using quotations such as, “Therefore, it’s generally the long-term holder that benefits from appreciation.” Although this quote is not directly related to the idea of fear, it is an applicable quote regarding the benefits of sticking it out. This will help transition you into the discussion about fighting through the hard times because this quotation is about conquering fear by managing in difficult times. A lot of the argument here will have to come from your own warrants. Similarly, you can spend some of your time analyzing the tone employed by the author when discussing the parts of the housing crisis which make us fearful. This is particularly important when you analyze how the author purposefully calms the audience down off of this edge of fear when the article employs quotations, such as, “While the current housing crisis is severe, past history provides some perspective.”

Reasoning Through Language Arts

After you have structured this part of your essay, you can transition into the next, which deals with fighting through the hard times. Here you can use quotations from the speech such as, “Nature still offers her bounty and human efforts have multiplied it. Plenty is at our doorstep, but a generous use of it languishes in the very sight of the supply.” “We may now restore that temple to the ancient truths. The measure of that restoration lies in the extent to which we apply social values more noble than mere monetary profit.” These quotations will help to structure the argument that despite trying times, a focus on the positives in the worst of situations will help make fighting easier. This would also be a good place to talk about camaraderie. In this way you can argue that the evidence from the article (dealing with mortgages, the housing bubble, unemployment, etc.) are all issues that while, yes, are severe, are manageable problems. This will help you argue from past precedent. Reference again the change in the housing market in California in the 90s. Including this piece of information is how you tie together the speech and the advice in the article.

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Finally, you will end your essay with a conclusion that succinctly restates your thesis. A good rule is to end with something new for the audience to think about. One such example would be, “Perhaps the people who do not give into the temptation of the ‘easy way out’ and stick with paying their mortgages might find themselves the most prosperous people in our society in the long run.”

Mathematical Reasoning (Non-Calculator) 5 questions 10 minutes* You may not use a calculator on this section.

*Test-takers are advised to pace themselves by spending no more than 10 to 12 minutes on the noncalculator portion of the Mathematical Reasoning test so they can move on to the calculator-active portion.

Mathematics Formula Sheet Area: parallelogram

A = bh

trapezoid

1 h(b1 + b2 ) 2

Surface Area and Volume: rectangular/right prism: SA = ph + 2B

V = Bh

cylinder:

SA = 2πrh + 2πr²

V = πr²h

pyramid:

SA =

1 ps + B 2

V=

1 Bh 3

cone:

SA = πrl + πr²

V=

1 2 πr h 3

sphere:

SA = 4πr²

V=

4 3 πr 3

(p = perimeter of base B ; π ≈ 3.14)

Algebra: slope of a line: m =

y 2 − y1 x 2 − x1

slope-intercept form of the equation of a line: y = mx + b point-slope form of the equation of a line: y – y1 = m(x – x1)

Mathematical Reasoning

standard form of a quadratic equation: x = ax²+ bx + c

72

−b ± b 2 − 4ac quadratic formula: y = 2a Pythagorean Theorem: a² + b² = c² simple interest: I = prt (I = interest, p = principal, r = rate, t = time)

1. Convert 12 yards 3 feet and 8 inches into inches.

A.

y

A. 288 B. 324 C. 468

x

D. 476 2. Twice a positive integer squared less 3 is 95. What is the integer? Place your answer in the box below.

(8, –6)

B.

y

On the GED test, this would be a fill-inthe-blank question. Here, please select your answer from the choices given.

(8, –6)

A. 5

x

B. 7 C. 11 D. 13 C.

y

3. Place the point (8, –6) on the coordinate plane below. For the GED® test, this would be a hot-spot question. Here, we will have you choose among four sample coordinate planes.

x

y

(8, –6)

D.

y

(8, –6)

x

x

Practice Test 73

4. A jacket costing $120 is discounted 20%. After a week, the jacket is discounted another 20% and is sold. What expression below can be used to calculate the cost for which the jacket was sold? A. (120)(0.40) B. 120 – 120(0.40) C. 120 – (120)(.20) – [120 – (0.20) (120)](0.20)

Mathematical Reasoning

D. 120 – (120)(0.40) – [120 – (120) (0.40)]

74

5. Which of the following points lies on the line y – 2 = 3(x – 4)? A. (4, –2) B. (4, 2) C. (–4, –2) D. (6, –2)

Mathematical Reasoning (Calculator) 45 questions 105 minutes* You may use a calculator on this section.

*Timing is based on the total available time of 115 minutes for the Mathematical Reasoning test. Testtakers are advised to spend no more than 10 to 12 minutes on the non-calculator portion so they can invest more time on the more complex questions that show up in the calculator-active section that follows.

6. What is the diameter of a circle that has area equal to 484π? On the GED® test this might be a fill in the blank question. Here, just choose the correct answer choice.

9.

A (2x)°

A. 22 B. 30 C. 44

B

D. 54

12 + 3 27 +

B. Equiangular C. Isosceles

3

D. Right 10. A 1.5 gallon jug needs to be filled with water. If the jug is filled one pint at a time, how many pints are needed to fill the jug?

B. 3 42 C. 12 3 D. 3 3 + 3 27 8. On the GED® test, this question could be a drop-down or cloze type. Here, please choose the lettered answer. less than



equal to

227



A. 10 B. 12

14.637

D. 15

greater than B. equal to C. greater than D. /less than / equal to

Mathematical Reasoning

On the GED® test, this would be a fill-inthe-blank question. Here, please select your answer from the four provided.

C. 14

A. less than

76

C

A. Obtuse

A. 108



(4x)°

ABC is what type of triangle?

7. Simplify the following expression.

(6x)°

11. Simplify the following expression.

5 – 2(3 – 5)³ + 2² – (–11)

This might be a fill-in-the blank question on the GED® test. Here, mark the correct answer. A. 20 B. 26 C. 30 D. 36

Questions 12 and 13 refer to the chart below. Wilson High School 2012 Total Students = 1,200

12th Grade 12%

11th Grade 11%

14. Which of the following graphs represents the inequalities: 2 y < x−4 3 y ≥ −3 x + 3

9th Grade 30%

A.

y

10th Grade 47%

12. The number of 9th graders attending the high school in 2014 is expected to be 20% greater than the 2012 total. How many 9th graders are expected to be at the high school in 2014? This could be another fill-in-theblank question on the GED® test. Here choose the answer from the selection given.

x

B.

y

x

A. 422 B. 432 C. 660 D. 900

C.

y

13. What is the measure of the central angle created by the sum of the 9th and 11th graders? A. 147.6°

x

B. 151.2° C. 163.7° D. 180°

Practice Test 77

D.

y

x

15. A rectangular television screen is sold by the length of its diagonal. If the diagonal is 45″ and the height of the screen is 27″, what is the area of the screen? A. 972 in² B. 1,008 in² C. 1,215 in²

B. C.

Mathematical Reasoning

D.

78

2 3

B.

1 3

C.

2 9

D.

1 9

A. 16, –2

16. Which of the following graphs represents the compound inequality −8 ≤ 2 x − 8 < 8 ? –8

A.

18. If x² + 6x = 40, what are the values of x – 6?

D. 1,620 in²

A.

17. A board game uses a six-sided die and a spinner with the colors red, yellow and blue. What is the probability of throwing a 4 or 6 and spinning red or blue? This would be a drag-and-drop on the GED® test where you would place your answer in boxes provided below. For this test, select the correct answer from those given.

0

8

0

8

0

8

0

8

B. –16, –2 C. 10, –4 D. –20, 2 19. What is the slope of a line that is perpendicular to the line 2x – 7y = –37 ? On the GED® test you would drag-and-drop the correct answer into the brackets. For now, simply select the answer choice from those listed. A.

2 7

B.

−2 7

C.

7 2

D.

−7 2

20.

B. biked, rested, ran

t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

m



C. rested, biked, ran



m

If the measure of ∠5 = (3x)° and the measure of ∠2 = (2x)°, what is the measure of ∠8? On the GED® test you would place your answer in the boxes below (ignoring the degree symbol). Here, select your answer from the choices given. A. 98 B. 102

D. ran, rested, biked 22. The supplement of an angle is four times the measure of its complement. What is the measure of the angle? Select the correct answer below.

less than



equal to

the angle’s measure is

greater than



This would be a Cloze example type on the GED® test. Here, simply select your answer from the choices given.

C. 108

A. 35

D. 110

B. 40

21. Elena has an exercise routine in which she runs uphill, rests and bikes downhill (not in any set order).

Distance

The graph below shows her routine on a given day.

60

C. 55 D. 60 23. The following points lie on a certain line. x

y

–2

–11

1

–5

4

1

6

5

What is the equation of the line? A. y = –4x + 2 B. y = –3x + 3 Time

A. ran, biked, rested

D. y = 2x – 7 Practice Test

What is the order in which Elena rested, biked and ran?

C. y = 2x – 3

79

24.

m

B

A

C

In the figure above, points A, B, and C are

27. A rectangle has a diagonal that is 5 inches long and a height of 1.4 inches. What is the perimeter of the rectangle? On the GED® test you would place your answer in the boxes below. Here make your selection from the choices provided. A. 8.3

A. Collinear and coplanar

B. 10.6

B. Collinear only

C. 12.4

C. Non-collinear and coplanar

D. 14.8

D. Adjacent and supplementary 25. What is the product of (−2 x 2 y 3 )3 (3 xy 2 )2 ? A. –6x8y13 B. –72x7y10 C. 72x7y10 D. –72x8y13 26. James placed $7,500 in a certificate of deposit (CD) at his local bank. The interest the CD generated was $731.25. If the interest rate was 6.5%, how many months was the money deposited? A. 1.5 B. 2.5 C. 12 D. 18

28. What is the solution to the equation x² + 4x – 14 = 0? Round your answer to the nearest tenth. A. 2.3 B. –6.3 C. 2.3, –6.3 D. 4.4, –4.1 29. Lori needs an 85% average in her math class to move on to the next class. On her first three exams, she earned scores of 81%, 78%, and 97%. What must Lori score on her fourth and final test to earn an 85% grade for the class? On the GED® test you would be directed to place your answer in the boxes below (ignoring the percent sign). Here, select from the choices given. A. 84% B. 86%

Mathematical Reasoning

C. 92%

80

D. 96%

30. What is the perimeter of a square that has an area of 1,459.24 square meters? A. 164.4 meters B. 152.8 meters C. 144 meters D. 139.8 meters Carbon-14 has a half-life of 5,700 years. The graph below shows the decay of a 10 kilogram sample over several thousand years.

32. Approximately how many years have passed when the carbon-14 sample decays to 4.1 kg?

less than



equal to

7,000 years is



greater than

carbon decay to 4.1 kg

On the GED® test this would be a cloze or drop-down item. Here, please select your answer from the choices given. A. less than B. equal to

kg

10

C. greater than

8

D. none of the above

6

(5.700, 5)

4 2 0

5

10 15 20 25 30 35 Years (in thousands)

31. What is the best estimate of the weight of the carbon-14 sample after 19,000 years?

33. The scale on a state map of Connecticut indicates that 1 inch = 6.5 miles. If the distance between Bristol and New Haven is 31 miles, what is the distance on the map? (Round your answer to the nearest tenth of an inch). Place a check in the brackets next to your answer. This would be a drag-and-drop question. For now, choose the answer that you believe is the correct answer.

A. 1.4 kg

A. 3.9  [ ]

B. 0.9 kg

B. 4.2  [ ]

C. 0.2 kg

C. 4.7  [  ]

D. 0.08 kg

D. 4.8  [  ]

Practice Test 81

34. What is the measure of ∠BOC in the diagram below? Place your answer in the boxes below (ignore the degrees symbol). This would be a fill-in-the-blank question type on the GED® test. Here, mark your answer choice.

(5x)°

On the GED® test this would be a fill-in-theblank question type. Here, please select your answer from the four provided.

A

B (10x)°

C

0

37. A vendor of ornamental rope charges $0.15 per inch or $1.55 per foot. What is the savings on an order of 7 yards of chain if it is purchased on a per foot basis rather than a per inch basis? Place your answer in the boxes below (ignore the $ sign).

A. $5.25

(9x)° D

A. 35.7 B. 37.5 C. 73.5 D. 33.2

B. $3.75 C. $3.65 D. $2.45 38. A local fishing pier registered the following catches (in pounds) for a six day period. Day

35. What is the slant height of a cone with a surface area that measures 435.675 in² and a radius that measures 7.5 inches? (π = 3.14). A. 10.6 B. 11 C. 11.2 D. 12.4

Mathematical Reasoning

36. The width of a wavelength in the visible light region of the electromagnetic spectrum is 4.6 × 10–6 meters. Another wavelength in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has a width of 3.22 × 10–2. How many wavelengths of the visible light, if laid side to side, would fit within one length of the microwave wavelength? Express your answer in scientific notation.

82

A. 7 × 104 B. 7.2 × 103 C. 7 × 103 D. 6.85 × 10–3

Weight 1

108

2

112

3

104

4

109

5

118

6

112

What is the difference between the median and the mean of these weights? Enter your answer in the boxes below. On the GED® test this would be a fill-in-theblank question type. Here, please select your answer from the four provided. A. 10 B. 8 C. 5 D. 0

39. Find the missing y-coordinate if (7, y) and 2 (4, –3) lie on a line that has slope − . 5 A. 4.8 B. –2.6 C. –4.2 D. –7.8 40. Katie can spend up to $100 on some inexpensive skirts. If each skirt costs $8, which of the following expressions reflects the conditions of Katie’s purchase?

42.

2 x + 2 − 3 = 15 Find the value of x and place your answer in the box below. On the GED® test this would be a fill-in-theblank question type. Here, please select your answer from the four provided. A. 146 B. 155 C. 161 D. 171

A. s + 8 = 100 B. s + 8 < 100 C. 8s < 100 D. 8s ≤ 100 41. Simplify the following expression: x 3 + 6 x 2 − 16 x x 2 − 2x x +8 A. x−2 x ( x − 8) x+2 C. x + 8 B.

D. x – 2

43. If $19.50 represents a 22% discount off the price of a tennis racquet, what were the cents of the racquet’s original price? (Round your answer to the nearest cent.) Place a check mark next to your answer. ___63 ____64 ____71 ____96 On the GED® test this would be a hot-spot question type. Here, please select your answer from the four provided. A. 63 B. 64 C. 71 D. 96

Practice Test 83

44. A cruise line ship left Port A and traveled 90 miles due west and then 400 miles due north. At this point, the ship docked at Port B. What is the shortest distance between Port A and Port B?

A. Hundreds [0 ] Tens [0] ones [2 ]

Place your answer in the box below.

D. Hundreds [1 ] Tens [0] ones [3 ]

On the GED® test this would be a fill-in-theblank question type. Here, please select your answer from the four provided. B. 390 C. 410 D. 450

45. Which of the following is the graph of the following inequalities: –8x +2 > –12 or 4x – 6 ≥ 16 A. B. C. D.

1.75

5.5

1.75

5.5

–2

6

C. Hundreds [0 ] Tens [2] ones [2 ]

The following information is to be used for questions 47 and 48.

47. If the number of sales continued to grow at the same rate, how many homes will have been sold at the 6-year mark? (Round your answer to the nearest home sold.) Place your answer in the box below. On the GED ® test this would be a fill-inthe-blank question type. Here, please select your answer from the four provided. A. 268 B. 387 C. 553

–2

6

46. A rope measures 30 yards in length. How many circles of radius 5 feet can be created from this length of rope. Drag your answer to the boxes below. Mathematical Reasoning

B. Hundreds [1] Tens [1] ones [2 ]

A housing development outside of Little Rock had sold 240 of its homes 1.6 years after its grand opening. After 4 years and 3 months, the number of homes sold rose to 450.

A. 385

84

On the GED ® test this would be a drag-anddrop question type. Here, please select your answer from the four provided.

D. 589

48. How many years are needed to sell 1,150 houses (round your answer to the nearest year)?

   Hundreds [ 0 ] [1 ]

A. 13

   Tens [0 ] [1 ] [3 ] [ 4]

B. 10

   Ones [1 ] [2 ] [3 ] [5]    Hundreds [ ] Tens [ ] Ones [ ]

C. 9 D. 6

A. 0.01

1 5 1 49. 2 x − 3 = 7 4 8 3

B. 0.02 C. 0.03

x =?

D. 0.04 A. 3

5 8 51. How many ways can the president, vice president, and secretary of the senior class be selected from a pool of 12 students? Place the appropriate symbol/number(s) in the brackets below.

B. 4 37 56 C. 6 D. 6

11 18

[ ]  [ ]  [ ]

50. A carnival game consists of throwing a bean bag on to circular target area painted on the floor. (See diagram below.)

[15] [12] [3 ] [P ] [ C ] [N ] [R ] [! ] On the GED® test this would be a drag-anddrop question type. Here, please select your answer from the four provided. A. 12 C N B. 3 C R C. 15 P !

1.5’

4.5’

D. 12 P 3

If the width of the inner circle is 1.5 feet and the width of the outer circle is 4.5 feet, given that the bean bag falls on the target, what is the probability that it will land on the inner circle? (π = 3.14) Place you answer in the box below. On the GED® test this would be a fill-in-theblank question type. Here, please select your answer from the four provided. Practice Test 85

Answers 1. D.

4. C.

Convert 12 yards into inches.

After the first 20% discount we get:





1 yard = 36 inches (3 feet)

120 – (0.20)(120) = 96

12 × 36 = 432

After the second 20% discount we get:

Convert 3 feet into inches.



3 × 12 = 36 Add 432, 36 and 8 to find the inches in 12 yards 3 feet and 8 inches.

432 + 36 + 8 = 476

original – first discount – second discount

120 – (120)(.20) – [120) – (0.20)(120)] (0.20) = $76.80 5. B. Substitute (4, 2) into the line y – 2 = 3(x – 4).

2. B.



2 – 2 = 3(4 – 4)

Let x = the number



0 = 3(0)

2x² – 3 = 95



0 = 0  3

2x² = 98

x² = 49

y – 2 = 3(x – 4) is the equation of a line expressed in point-slope form.



x=7

6. C.

Although –7 is also a solution to the equation, the answer to the question is 7, the positive integer that satisfies the equation. 3. A.

Find the radius of the circle by setting 484π equal to the area formula. A = πr² 484π = πr² r² = 484

y

r = 22 Find the diameter by multiplying the radius by 2. x

Mathematical Reasoning

(8, –6)

86

2 × 22 = 44

7. C.

10. B.

Simplify each radical and add like terms. 12 =



3 27 = 3 ×

Since 4 quarts equal one gallon, then 1.5 gallons equal 6 quarts because 1.5 × 4 = 6. Each quart equals 2 pints so 6 quarts equals 12 pints.

3=2 3 9×

= 3×3×

3

11. D.

3=9 3

Use the order of operations to simplify the expression.

3 =1 3



All of the radicals are like terms. 12 + 3 27 +

Parentheses: 5 – 2(3 – 5)³ + 2² – (–11) = 5 – 2 (–2)³ + 2² – (–11)

3=

Exponents: 5 – 2(–2)³ + 2² – (–11) = 5 – 2(–8) + 4 – (–11)

2 3 + 9 3 + 1 3 = 12 3



Multiply/Divide: 5 – 2(–8) + 4 – (–11) = 5 + 16 + 4 – (–11)

8. C. 227 is greater than 14.637. Since 15, then

225 =

227 must be greater than 14.637.

9. D. The sum of the measures of the angles in a triangle is 180°. Solve for x by using the equation 2x + 4x + 6x = 180. 2x + 4x + 6x = 180 12x = 180

Find the number of quarts in 1.5 gallons.

x = 15

Since x =15 we can conclude: 6x = 90 4x = 60 2x = 30 ABC has one angle that measures 90°, a right angle, so it is a right triangle.

Add/Subtract: 5 + 16 + 4 – (–11) = 25 + 11 = 36 12. B. Find the current enrollment of 9th graders by calculating 30% of 1,200.

(0.30)(1,200) = 360

Find 20% of 360 and add that number to 360.

360 + (0.20)(360) = 360 + 72 = 432

13. A. The percent of the students attending 9th and 11th grade is 41% because 30 + 11 = 41. Calculate the measure of the central angle formed in the chart by the 9th and 11th graders by finding 41% of 360°.

(360)(0.41) = 147.6°

Practice Test 87

14. B.

Graph y ≥ –3x + 3. Remember to draw a solid line because of the “≥” symbol.

y

y

(0, 3)

x x

(0, –4)

Find the shaded area by testing (0,0) in the inequality. 0<

2 (0) − 4 3

Find the shaded area by testing (0,0) in the inequality. 0 ≥ −3(0) + 3

0 < −4

0 is not less than –4 so shade below the line. y

0≥3

0 is not greater than or equal to 3, so shade to the right of the line. The correct graph is the intersection of the shaded areas. y

x x

Mathematical Reasoning

(0, –4)

88

15. A.

17. C.

The diagonal of a rectangle creates two right triangles. The diagonal of the television is the hypotenuse while the height of the screen is one of the legs. Use the Pythagorean theorem to calculate the measure of the screen’s base.

Find the probability of each event by using desired outcomes . the formula all outcomes Probability of throwing a 4 or 6: 4, 6 2 1 = = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 6 3



27² + b² = 45²



729 + b² = 2025

b² = 1,296 b = 36 Note that the lengths 27-36-45 are multiples of a 3-4-5 Pythagorean triple because 9 × 3 = 27, 9 × 4 = 36 and 9 × 5 = 45. Find the area of the rectangular screen by using the formula for the area of a rectangle.

Area = base × height



Area = 27 × 36 = 972 in²

Probability of spinning red or blue: red, blue 2 = red, blue, yellow 3 Find the probability of both events occurring by finding the product of the two probabilities. 1 2 2 × = 3 3 9 18. B. Subtract 40 from both sides of x² + 6x = 40 and factor.

16. D. Solve the compound inequality by writing it as two separate inequalities.

–8 ≤ 2x – 8

and

2x – 8 < 8



0 ≤ 2x 2x < 16



0 ≤ x x<8 0≤x<8 0

4

x² + 6x = 40 x² + 6x – 40 = 0 The factors that add to 6 and have a product of –40 are 10 and –4 because 10 + –4 = 6 and 10 × –4 = –40 (x +10)(x – 4) = 0 x + 10 = 0  or  x – 4 = 0

8

Remember, the dot at 0 is filled because 0 is a part of the graph. The dot at 8 is open because 8 is not part of the graph. Double check your work by testing a point on the number line. We will try 4.

x = –10 or x = 4 Substitute both values in the expression x – 6.

–10 – 6 = –16



4 – 6 = –2

–8 ≤ 2(4) – 6 < 8 –8 < 2 < 8 Practice Test

Testing 4 satisfied the inequality confirming the line is shaded between 0 and 8.

89

19. D.

21. B.

The slopes of perpendicular lines are the opposite reciprocals of one another. Find the slope of 2x – 7y = –37 by transforming the equation into slope- intercept form.

The first section of the graph shows a relatively large distance covered in a relatively small amount of time. Presumably, her bike route covered a great distance in a short time, so biking was the first part of the exercise routine.

2 x − 7 y = −37 −7 y = −2 x − 37 −2 −7 37 y = x− −7 −7 7

2 37 y = x+ 7 7

2 ; therefore, the 7 slope of a line perpendicular to 2x – 7y = –37 7 is − . 2 The slope of the line is

20. C. ∠5 and ∠2 are supplementary angles so set their sum equal to 180°. 3x + 2x = 180 5x = 180 x = 36 The measure of ∠5 = 108° because 3 × 36 =108. The measure of ∠2 = 72° because 2 × 36 = 72.

Mathematical Reasoning

∠5 and ∠8 are vertical angles and thus are equal in measure. Therefore, the measure of ∠8 equals 108°.

90

The second section of the graph shows time increasing without any distance being covered. Therefore, resting was the next aspect of her routine. The final section of the graph shows both distance and time being increased. Compared to the first section, more time is being spent per unit of distance covered. Therefore, running uphill was the final part of Elena’s exercise routine. 22. D. 60 is equal to the measurement of the angle. Let x = the angle’s measure 180 – x = the angle’s supplement 90 – x = the angle’s complement

180 – x = 4(90 – x)



180 – x = 360 – 4x

3x = 180

x = 60

Check your solution. If x is 60°, then the supplement is 180 – 60 = 120 and the complement is 90 – 60 = 30.

120 = 4 × 30



120 = 120  3

23. D.

26. D.

Since all the points lie on the line, we could take any two points and find the slope and y-intercept. However, a quicker way to solve this problem is to quickly substitute the coordinates for x and y. The correct answer will satisfy all four of the points in the table.

Use the formula Interest = Principal × Rate × Time (where time is usually expressed in years) and input the known information.

y = 2x – 7 Substitute (–2, –11)

–11 = 2(–2) – 7



–11 = –11  3

Substitute (1, –5)

–5 = 2(1) – 7



–5 = –5  3

Substitute (4, 1)

1 = 2(4) – 7



1 = 1  3

Substitute (6, 5)

5 = 2(6) – 7



5 = 5  3

24. C. Points that are not on the same line are called non-collinear points. Three non-collinear points determine a plane so they are also coplanar.

Let t = the time in years of the certificate of deposit

731.25 = 7,500 × 0.065 × t



731.25 = 487.5t



1.5 = t

Convert 1.5 years to months by multiplying it by 12. 1.5 × 12 = 18 27. C. The diagonal of a rectangle creates two right triangles. Use the Pythagorean theorem to calculate the base of the rectangle. a² + b² = c²

1.4² + b² = 5²



1.96 + b² = 25

b² = 23.04 b = 4.8 The perimeter of a rectangle is found by using the formula P = 2l + 2w P = (2)(4.8) + (2)(1.4) = 12.4

25. D. Simplify each parentheses separately. (–2x2y3)3 = –8x6y9 (3xy2)2 = 9x2y4 Next, multiply the two simplified quantities. (–8x6y9)(9x2y4) = –72x8y13 Practice Test 91

28. C.

30. B.

Since there are no numbers with product -14 and sum 4, use the quadratic formula to solve this equation.

The area of a square is found by using the formula A = s², where s is the length of one side. Input 1,459.24 for the area to find the length of one side.

x² + 4x – 14 = 0

1,459.22 = s 2

−b ± b 2 − 4ac x = 2a a = 1, b = 4, c = –14 −4 ±

42 − 4(1)(−14) = 2(1)

−4 ± 16 − (−56) = 2 −4 ± 72 = 2 −4 ± 8.5 = 2

x = 2.25

x = −6.25

Rounded to the nearest tenth, the solution set is x = 2.3 and x = –6.3 29. A. The average of Lori’s test scores is calculated by finding the sum of the four scores and then dividing by four. Let x = Lori’s fourth test score 81 + 78 + 97 + x = 85 4

Mathematical Reasoning

256 + x = 85 4

92

 256 + x  (4)  = 85  = (85)(4)   4 256 + x = 340

x = 84

1,459.22 =

s2

38.2 = s

The perimeter of a square is found by using the formula P = 4s. Input 38.2 for s and calculate. P = 4 × 38.2 = 152.8 31. B. The graph shows that after decaying for 19,000 years, approximately 0.9 kg of the 10 kg sample remains. 32. C. The graph shows that the 10 kg sample has decayed to 4.1 kg after approximately 6,000 years have passed.

33. D.

36. C.

inches inches to find = miles miles the inches between Bristol and New Haven on the map. 1 n = 6.5 31

Divide the longer microwave wave length by the smaller visible light wave length.

Use the proportion

Cross-multiply and solve for n.



3.22 × 10−2 4.6 × 10−6

Divide 3.22 by 4.6 and then divide 10–2 by 10–6. Remember, when dividing numbers with the same base, subtract the exponents.

1 × 31 = 6.5 × n





31 = 6.5n

10–2 ÷ 10–6 = 10–2–(–6) = 104



4.76 = n

Rounded to the nearest tenth of an inch, the distance between Bristol and New Haven is 4.8 inches on the map. 34. B. The three angles create a straight line so their sum is 180°. Add the three angles and solve for x. 5x + 10x + 9x = 180

3.22 ÷ 4.6 = 0.7

Thus far we have 0.7 × 104. A number expressed in scientific notation is the product of a number greater than or equal to 1 and less than 10 multiplied by 10 to some power. To change 0.7 × 104 into scientific notation, move the decimal point one place to the right and decrease the power of ten by 1. 0.7 × 104 = 7 × 103 37. A.

24x = 180

Find the number of feet and inches in 7 yards.

x = 7.5



1 yard = 36 inches

Replace x with 7.5 for ∠BOC.



7 yards = 252 inches

5x = 5(7.5) = 37.5



1 yard = 3 feet



7 yards = 21 feet

35. B. The surface area of a cone is found by using the formula SA = πr² + πrl where r represents the measure of the radius and l represents the measure of the slant height. Input the known data and solve for the slant height. SA = πr² + πrl 435.675 = (3.14)(7.5²) + (3.14)(7.5)(l )



435.675 =176.625 + 23.55l



259.05 = 23.55l



11 = l



(252)($0.15) = $37.80

Find the cost of 21 feet.

(21)($1.55) = $32.55



$37.80 – $32.55 = $5.25

Practice Test



Find the cost of 252 inches.

93

38. D.

40. D.

The median of a set of numbers is the value in the middle when the numbers are arranged in order. The mean of a set of numbers is the sum of the numbers divided by the number of values.

The variable s represents the number of skirts Katie can purchase. Since each skirt costs $8, 8s represents the cost of Katie’s purchase. The phrase “up to $100” means the cost can equal $100 or be some dollar value less. Thus, the inequality 8s ≤ 100 reflects the maximum number of skirts Katie can buy with $100.

Find the median by arranging the weight in order. 104 108 109 112 112 118 There are two numbers in the middle, 109 and 112. Find their mean to get the median.

(109 + 112) ÷ 2 = 110.5

41. C. Factor the numerator and denominator completely

Find the mean:

x 3 + 6 x 2 − 16 x = x 2 − 2x

(104 + 108 + 109 + 112 + 112 + 118) ÷ 6 = 110.5

x ( x 2 + 6 x − 16) x ( x − 2)

Subtract the mean from the median.

110.5 – 110.5 = 0

x ( x + 8)( x − 2) = x ( x − 2)

39. C. Find the value of y by using the slope formula and inputting the known data. y − y1 m= 2 x 2 − x1 x1 y1 x2 y2

=7 = y =4 = −3

2 −3 − y1 =− 4−7 5

Mathematical Reasoning



94

−3 − y1 2 =− −3 5

Cross-multiply and solve for y1.



−3(−2) = 5(−3 − y1 ) 6 = −15 − 5 y1 21 = −5 y1 −4.2 = y1

=

x ( x + 8) ( x − 2) x ( x − 2)

=

x +8

42. C. Begin by isolating the variable. 2 x + 2 − 3 = 15

2 x + 2 = 18

Eliminate the radical by squaring both sides. ( 2 x + 2)2 = 182

2 x + 2 = 324

Solve the equation as you normally would. 2x + 2 = 324 2x = 322 x = 161

45. A.

43. B. part n to calculate = whole 100 the original price of the racquet. 19.50 22 = x 100 Use the formula

Cross-multiply and solve for x.

(19.50)(100) = 22x



1,950 = 22x



$88.636 = x

1.75

5.5

Solve each inequality separately. –8x + 2 > –12 –8x > –14 x < 1.75 Remember to reverse the direction of the inequality when you divide by –8. 4x – 6 ≥ 16

Rounded to the nearest cent, the racquet’s original price was $88.64. Thus, the cents of the price was 64.

4x ≥ 22

44. C.

–8x + 2 > –12 Use 0 to test the inequality

The path of the ship creates the legs of a right triangle.



–8(0) +2 > –12



2 > –12  3

x ≥ 5.5 Test each inequality with a sample value.

Shade to the left where 0 is located. Remember, the circle is open because 1.75 is not part of the graph.

Port B

4x – 6 ≥ 16 Use 6 to test the inequality

410 400

90

Port A

The shortest distance between Port A and Port B is the hypotenuse of the right triangle. Use the Pythagorean theorem to calculate the distance.

90² + 400² = c²



8,100 + 160,000 = c²



168,100 = c²



410 = c



4(6) – 6 ≥ 16



24 – 6 ≥ 16



18 ≥ 16  3

Shade to the right of 5.5, where 6 is located. The circle at 5.5 is filled because 5.5 is part of the graph.

Practice Test 95

46. A. Find the circumference of a circle that has a radius of 5 feet. Use the formula Circumference =2πr. C = (2)(3.14)(5) = 31.4 feet. Convert 30 yards into feet and divide that value by 31.4.

1 yard = 3 feet

The equation for the line connecting (1.6, 240) and (4.25, 455) is y = 79.2x + 113.3. Substitute 6 for x to find the home sales at the six year mark. y = 79.2(6) + 113.3 = 588.5 Rounded to the nearest home, the housing development will have sold 589 homes after 6 years.

30 × 3 = 90 feet

48. A.

90 ÷ 31.4 ≈ 2.87

Use the equation y = 79.2x + 113.3 and substitute 1,150 for y.

There is enough rope to make two full circles. 47. D. The phrase “continued to grow at the same rate” indicates a linear model. Let x represent years and y represent sales. Find the slope of the line that contains the points (1.6, 240) and (4.25, 450). Note that 4 years and 3 months must be converted into years. Since three months comprise a quarter of a year, we can change 4 years and 3 months into 4.25 years. Use the formula m =



y 2 − y1 x 2 − x1



1,150 = 79.2x + 113.3



1,036.7 = 79.2x



13.1 = x

Rounded to the nearest year, it will take 13 years for 1,150 homes to be sold. 49. B. Solve for x as you normally would. Make sure to use the fraction features on the TI-30XS MultiView™ calculator. 1 5 1 2 x −3 = 7 3 8 4 5 1 5 5 1 2 x −3 +3 = 7 +3 8 4 8 8 3

450 + 240 ≈ 79.2 4.25 − 1.6

1 7 2 x = 10 3 8

The general form of a line in slope-intercept form is y = mx + b. Input 79.2 for m y = 79.2x + b

 1 1  7 1  2 x ÷ 2  =  10 ÷ 2   3 3  8 3

Mathematical Reasoning

Substitute the coordinates of one of the points to calculate b.

96



240 = 7.92(1.6) + b



240 = 126.7 + b



113.3 = b

y = 79.2x + 113.3



x =

261 37 =4 56 56

50. B.

51. D.

desired outcomes , all outcomes to calculate the probability of the bean bag landing on the inner circle. Find the area of the inner circle and the area of the entire circular target and place that information into the probability formula.

If Abbie, Bill and Carla were the president, vice president and secretary, respectively, it would not be the same as if Bill were president, Abbie was secretary and Carla was vice president. In this situation, order is important, so we use a permutation. The format starts with the larger pool of students followed by the permutation symbol followed by the smaller groups. Using a calculator, we find there are 1,320 different groups of three students that can be formed from a pool of twelve students.

Use the probability formula,

Since the inner circle is 1.5 feet wide, its diameter is also 1.5 feet and its radius is 0.75 feet. Substitute 0.75 for the radius in the area formula. A = πr² A = (3.14)(0.75)² = 1.766 square feet The radius of the entire circular target is found by adding the radius of the inner circle, 0.75, to the width of the outer ring.

Radius of entire target = 0.75 + 4.5 = 5.25

Substitute 5.25 for the radius in the area formula. A = (3.14)(5.25)² = 86.55 square feet Place the area of the inner circle and the entire circle in the probability formula. 1.766 ≈ 0.02 86.55

Practice Test 97

SCIENCE 50 questions 90 minutes

1. All of the following may inhibit enzymatic reactions EXCEPT (A) temperature (B) pH level (C) excess of substrate (D) lack of substrate 2. All of the following are steps of photosynthesis EXCEPT (A) Chlorophyll is absorbed through plant roots. (B) During photolysis a photon of light is absorbed by the chlorophyll pigment, which then is in an excited (higher energy) state. (C) Water is separated into hydrogen and oxygen atoms. (D) An ADP molecule is phosphorylated to ATP. 3. Which has the least mass? (A) Proton (B) Neutron (C) Electron (D) Hydrogen atom 4. Most animals have internal or external skeletons for structure and support. Which of the following parts provide a similar function in plant cells? (A) Cytoplasm (B) Chloroplasts (C) Cell membranes (D) Cell walls Use the following to answer Questions 5–8. (A) Gravity (B) Force (C) Inertia (D) Momentum

6. Acts at a distance and attracts bodies of matter toward each other

Practice Test

5. Mass times acceleration

99

7. Mass times velocity 8. A particle at rest will stay at rest and a particle in motion will stay in motion until acted upon by an outside force. Use the text and diagram to answer Questions 9–10. The crust is the outermost layer of what we think of as “the Earth.” It includes the mountains, valleys, continents, continental shelves, ocean basins, etc. The crust is rich in oxygen, silicon, and aluminum, with lesser amounts of other elements like iron, nickel, etc. It has low density (2.5 to 3.5 gm/cm3), that floats on the denser mantle. Several separate tectonic plates float beneath it on the surface of the mantle. The tectonic plates touch but magma can leak between the plates, at times causing volcanoes or the formation of under ocean ridges of new rock.

Science

9. There is a line of volcanic activity that shows up in white on this map. It stretches through the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, around the Eastern shore of Asia, Japan, and the Pacific Islands, to the Western shore of South America and Central and North America. This area has been nicknamed the “Ring of Fire” due to its highly volatile volcanic activity. Explain using evidence from the map and text why this area would be subject to high volcanic disruption.

100

10. Many of Earth’s major landforms are features that occurred due to _________ hitting each other. (This would be a drop-down type question on the GED® test. (A) continental shelves (B) continents (C) tetonic plates (D) faults 11. Pathogens in the form of airborne droplets are most likely to cause which of the following illnesses? (A) Throat infection (B) Stomach virus (C) AIDS (D) Malaria 12. In glycolysis, a molecule of glucose is broken down into all of the following EXCEPT (A) pyruvic acid (B) ATP (C) CO2 (D) H+ 13. Astronomers observing the redshift of light from a faraway star means that the star is (A) moving away from us (B) moving toward us (C) ready to explode (D) a dwarf star

Practice Test 101

14. Rabbits are not native to Australia, having been brought there from England by sailors in the 18th century. Yet rabbits have thrived and have in fact overpopulated Australia. In addition, rabbits and certain native Australian wallabies, although not closely related, resemble each other as to body structure and habits. Which idea about evolution is supported by these facts? (A) Mass extinctions of species and the emergence of new species can be studied by examining the fossil record. (B) Different species originally developed because of changes in some shared ancestral genetic code. (C) Many species have body parts that look similar because they evolved from the same ancestral mammal. (D) Species evolve in similar ways when they react to similar surroundings. Use the following to answer Questions 15–17.

(A) Radiation (B) Convection (C) Irradiation (D) Conduction

15. An athlete with a sore shoulder places a warm compress on it to transfer energy to soothe the muscle. 16. On a cold February morning, a blower system in a car warms up after several minutes and blows air through vents in the floor, dashboard, and windshield. Eventually, the driver is able to unbutton his coat and stay warm when the outside temperature is still 23°F.

Science

17. Getting ready for a fall cruise inspires a young lady to spend a couple of weeks going to a local spa and reclining under a tanning lamp. However, such practices might result in dangerous overexposure to ultraviolet rays that can lead to cancer or premature aging of the skin.

102

Use the following reading passage for Questions 18-20. Fish health in ponds depends on dissolved oxygen mostly produced through the process of photosynthesis by phytoplankton (microscopic plants). 6CO2 Carbondioxide

+

6H2O

sunlight

C6H12O6

Water

nutrients

Carbohydrate

+

6O2 Oxygen

The equation above illustrates the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis occurs during the day producing oxygen. At night the process of respiration occurs in the phytoplankton, represented by the equation below. It uses dissolved oxygen and produces carbon dioxide. 6O2

+

Oxygen

C6H12O6

sunlight

6CO2

Carbohydrate

nutrients

Carbondioxide

+

6H2O Water

+

Energy

18. The following graph shows the pattern of dissolved oxygen in the pond over a 24 hour period due to the photosynthetic and respiration processes. Think about how you would complete the last two points on the graph for the hours of 21:00 and 00:00 (midnight) on day 2.

Dissolved Oxygen (% saturation)

106 104 102 100 98 96 94 92 90 03:00 00:00 Midnight

06:00

09:00

12:00 Noon

15:00

18:00

21:00

00:00 Midnight

Time Changes in pond’s dissolved oxygen saturation level over 24-hour period.



The points on the graph would (A) go a lot higher? (B) drop quite a bit? (D) drop a bit?

Practice Test

(C) go up a little?

103

19. The respiration reaction shown below and that occurs at night is a _______________ reaction. This would be a drop-down question type on the GED® test. (A) decomposition (B) combination (C) replacement (D) double replacement 6O2 Oxygen

+

C6H12O6

6CO2

Carbohydrate

Carbondioxide

+

6H2O Water

+

Energy

20. Considering the paragraph and the graph, explain what effect shortening days of sunlight in winter would have on the pond ecosystem.

21. Energy flows through the food chain from (A) producers to consumers to decomposers (B) producers to secondary consumers to primary consumers (C) decomposers to consumers to producers

Science

(D) secondary consumers to producers

104

Use the following information to answer Questions 22–25. Normal skin color in mice is dominant to albino. In the following questions, N stands for normal skin color and n for albino.

22. Three offspring of two normal skinned parents have normal skin, but one is albino. Which of the following must be true? (A) One parent must have the NN genotype. (B) Both parents must have the NN genotype. (C) One parent must have the nn genotype. (D) Both parents must have the Nn genotype. 23. The albino offspring from the F1 generation described above produces one albino offspring and one normal offspring in the F2 generation. What must be the genotype of the albino’s mate? (A) Either Nn or NN (B) Either Nn or nn (C) Nn (D) nn 24. What percentage of the offspring of two albino parents would most likely be normal? (A) 100% (B) 50% (C) 10% (D) 0% 25. What are the chances that two normal parents each carrying recessive genes for albinism could have a heterozygous normal offspring? (A) 1 out of 2 (B) 3 out of 4 (C) 2 out of 3 (D) 0 out of 4

Practice Test 105

26. Which of the following chemical equations is NOT properly balanced? (A) FeCl3 – 3NaOH → Fe(OH)3 – 3NaCl (B) CH4 + O2 → CO2 + 2H2O (C) C3H3 + 5O2 → 3CO2 + 4H2O (D) 2NaCL + F2 → 2NAF + CL2 27. The

Select



is the densest atmospheric layer, accounting for most

stratosphere troposphere exosphere

of the mass of the atmosphere. It contains 99% of the water vapor found in the atmosphere. Use the following information to answer Questions 28–29. The formation of holes in the Earth’s ozone layer due to chemicals used by humans allows more ultraviolet (UV) light to reach the oceans. Increased UV light can kill phytoplankton, marine algae, and other microorganisms.

28. Which statement BEST describes how a large decrease in phytoplankton and marine algae would affect the ocean food web? (A) The effect would not be drastic since the organisms are so small. (B) The number of marine animals would decrease due to the decrease in producers. (C) The number of consumers in the food web would increase as the producers decrease.

Science

(D) The number of decomposers would increase as the phytoplankton and marine algae die.

106

29. Which of the following explains the MOST LIKELY effect of increased UV light on alpine and polar lakes that are very clear? (A) The increase in solar UV radiation would increase the rate of mutation in microorganisms such as phytoplankton and algae, so that they would no longer be a healthy food source for marine animals. (B) The UV light would raise the temperature of the alpine and polar lakes, which would help the microorganisms repair themselves. (C) The UV light would stimulate photosynthesis, resulting in a more stable ecosystem. (D) The UV light would penetrate to a greater depth in lakes that have clear water, potentially doing greater damage to the ecosystem. 30. Why does a food chain generally have no more than five trophic levels? (A) There is a loss of energy at each trophic level. (B) There is no way to determine the upper trophic levels. (C) Many organisms have multiple food sources. (D) The loss of biodiversity has limited the variety of organisms. 31. Which of the following statements is correct in comparing and contrasting prokaryotes and eukaryotes? (A) Eukaryotes are much larger than prokaryotes, but otherwise they share the same structure. (B) Cytoplasm is found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes but in a slightly different form in each. (C) Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes are mainly multicellular. (D) Prokaryotes and eukaryotes both have distinct organelles, although prokaryotes have fewer of them. 32. Which of the following is NOT included in the body’s first line of defense against disease-causing agents? (A) Stomach acid (B) Mucous membranes (C) Phagocytes (D) Cilia Practice Test 107

33. A ball rolling at a velocity of 12 m/sec hits a wall after 36 seconds. What is the acceleration of the ball? (This would be a fill-in-the-box question type.) (A) –23.334 m/sec (B) 23.334 m/sec (C) 0.334 m/sec2 (D) –0.334 m/sec² 34. A food pyramid is shown below.

owls snakes

bacteria

toads grasshoppers grasses



In this food pyramid, toads are which of the following? (A) Primary consumers (B) Secondary consumers (C) Producers

Science

(D) Tertiary consumers

108

35. Look at the population graph below. Logistic Growth Model

Population

1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

0

20

40

60

80

100

Time Interval



Which of the following population factors does the dotted line represent? (A) Lack of competitors (B) Carrying capacity (C) Migration (D) Frequency of reproduction

36. The Florida panther once roamed widely in the southeastern United States. The number of Florida panthers was drastically reduced due to loss of habitat, hunting, and even collisions with automobiles. By the 1970s, the estimated number of Florida panthers had shrunk to only six. Which of the following describes the most likely next stage in this situation? (A) Genetic defects in the population due to inbreeding (B) Genetic diversity due to interbreeding with other free-roaming puma species (C) Improvement of the Florida panther’s gene pool due to inbreeding (D) Development of two new breeds of Florida panther

Practice Test 109

37. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an enzyme vital to the production of the prostaglandins, but also contributes to the inflammation of joints in medical conditions such as arthritis. New medications that block the production of prostaglandins by COX-2 enzymes and thereby relieve the symptoms of arthritis are a type of (A) hormone (B) chemical inhibitor (C) ion (D) prosthetic group 38. Look at the diagram below of the human female reproductive system.

Fallopian tubes Ovaries

Uterus

Endometrium

Cervix Vagina

+

Female Reproductive System Seen from the Front

In human sexual reproduction, the fertilized ovum attaches to which of the following? (A) Fallopian tube (B) Uterus (C) Endometrium

Science

(D) Vagina

110

39. A person who contracts chicken pox as an adult lacks which of the following? (A) memory cells (B) memory cells for a specific pathogen (C) plasma cells (D) B lymphocyte cells 40. The water molecule has many special properties. Which of the following occurs because of water’s cohesive behavior? (A) Water is able to cool down and heat up slowly. (B) Water is able to float in solid form. (C) Water is able to dissolve many substances. (D) Water is able to move from the roots to the leaves of plants. 41. Which of the following is NOT one of the ways in which the carbon cycle uses carbon to build organic compounds? (A) plant and animal respiration (B) transpiration (C) photosynthesis (D) combustion Use the following terms to answer Questions 42–43.

(A) Cellular respiration (B) Fermentation (C) Kreb’s Cycle (D) Photosynthesis

42. Anaerobic process producing two ATP molecules per glucose molecule. 43. Breaks down pyruvic acid molecules into CO2 molecules, H+ (protons), and 2 ATP molecules.

Practice Test 111

Use this information to answer Questions 44–46. A student wants to know how temperature affects the rate of the catalyzed reaction for the stomach enzyme pepsin. She sets up an experiment in the lab using reaction chambers set at varying temperatures.

44. Identify the independent variable and dependent variable for this experiment and place the correct component into the boxes: This would be a drag-and-drop question type. (A) Pepsin (B) Rate of reaction (C) Temperature (°C) (D) Catalyzation reaction Independent Variable Dependent Variable 45. In which step of the nitrogen cycle do bacteria and fungi break excess nitrates back into their elements and release elemental nitrogen back into the atmosphere? (A) Ammonification (B) Denitrification (C) Nitrogen fixing

Science

(D) Decomposition

112

46. Which graph shows the most likely result of this experiment? Rate of Enzyme Reaction

(A)

(D)

30 40 50 Temperature (°C)

60

70

0

10

20

30 40 50 Temperature (°C)

60

70

0

10

20

30 40 50 Temperature (°C)

0

10

Rate of Enzyme Reaction

20

Rate of Enzyme Reaction

(C)

10

60

70

Rate of Enzyme Reaction

(B)

0

20 30 40 50 Temperature (°C)

60

70

Practice Test 113

47. The gravity from the moon pulls the ocean causing it to bulge and rise on one side while it lowers on the other as the Earth rotates and the Moon orbits forming tides. The sun has some gravitational effect on tides, but not as much as the moon. Tides rise and fall daily with the rotation of the Earth. Especially high (spring) tides occur during which of the following positions of the sun/earth/moon? (A)

M Sun

Earth

(B) Sun

Earth

M

(C) Sun

Earth M

(D) M

Science

Sun

114

Earth

Use the information in this table to answer Questions 48–50. Properties of Substances Substance

Reaction with Water

Phase at Room Temperature

Reaction to Flame

Density

Hydrogen (gas)

none

gas

explosive

0.00009 g/ml

Sodium

bubbling

solid

explosive

0.97 g/ml

Mercury

none

liquid

none

13.6 g/ml

48. Which substance would be considered most highly reactive? (A) Hydrogen (B) Sodium (C) Mercury (D) Argon 49. It was concluded from these tests that the phase of a substance determines how reactive it would be. Is this a reasonable conclusion? (A) It is a reasonable conclusion since both gases do not react with water (B) It is a reasonable conclusion since the solid is the most reactive (C) It is a reasonable conclusion since not all substances can be reactive (D) It is a poor conclusion since the two gases have very different reactions 50. Which of the tests measured physical properties? (A) Density, reaction to flame (B) Reaction to flame and water (C) Density, phase (D) Phase, reaction to water

Practice Test 115

Answers 1. (C) Environmental conditions such as heat or acidity inhibit enzymatic reactions by changing the shape of the active site and rendering the enzyme ineffective. Certain chemicals inhibit enzymatic reactions by changing the shape of the enzyme’s active site. If there is a lack of substrate, the enzyme will have no substance to affect. Thus, all of these factors may inhibit enzymatic reactions except an excess of substrate, which would not inhibit those reactions. 2. (A) Chlorophyll is not absorbed through plant roots; it is synthesized within plant cells. Photolysis, where a photon of light is absorbed by the chlorophyll pigment, which then is in an excited (higher energy) state, is the first step in the photosynthetic process. The light reaction is a decomposition reaction that separates water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen atoms utilizing the energy from the excited chlorophyll pigment. Oxygen that is not needed by the cell combines to form O2 (gas) and is released into the environment. The free hydrogen is grabbed and held by a particular molecule (called the hydrogen acceptor) until it is needed. 3. (C) An electron has nearly no discernible mass. A proton has a mass of 1 atomic mass unit (AMU) as does a neutron. According to the Periodic Table of Elements an atom of hydrogen has a mass on average of 1AMU (1.007) since the most common isotope of hydrogen has no neutrons and is a single proton. 4. (D) Rigid cell walls made of cellulose serve the same function of structure and support in plant cells as skeletons do in animals. 5. (B) Force equals mass times acceleration. 6. (A)

Science

Gravity is defined as the force that acts at a distance and attracts bodies of matter toward each other.

116

7. (D) Momentum is equal to mass times velocity. 8. (C) Inertia is the property of matter that allows a particle at rest to stay at rest and a particle in motion to stay in motion until acted upon by an outside force. 9. [3 pts. possible] The ring of fire is located at the edge of large tectonic plates. (1pt.) Not only is this area at the edge of tectonic plates but it also is where continental plates meet and one slides under the other making it easy for magma to leak. (1pt.) These features as shown on the map make these areas more prone for volcanic activity than in the center of a plate. (1pt.) 10. (C) Many of Earth’s major landforms are features that occurred due to tectonic plates hitting each other. Many of Earth’s major landforms are features that occurred due to tectonic plates hitting each other causing folding of rock into mountains or slipping of one plate under another forming a continental shelf. Careful study of the tectonic plates and the land formations between them reveal how the formations came to be. 11. (A) A respiratory illness such as a throat infection is the most likely to be caused by pathogens in airborne droplets spread by sneezing or coughing. A virus might be caught by surface contact; AIDs is a bloodborne disease and must be passed by direct blood contact; and malaria is spread by parasites such as the bite of a mosquito. 12. (C) CO2 is not a product of glycolysis. Each molecule of glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid (pyruvate), two ATP molecules, and two hydrogen atoms (attached to NADH, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide). 13. (A)

Practice Test

A redshift in the electromagnetic spectrum of the light from a faraway star means that the star is moving away from the observer. In the 1920s, Edwin Hubble (1889–1953) observed that galaxies around the Milky Way were moving away from us because of this redshift, and those farther away are moving away from us even more rapidly; it is not moving toward us.

117

14. (D) Though rabbits and wallabies are not closely related and their geographic origins are distant, their similarities and the rabbits ability to survive in similar habitat supports the idea that widely divergent species can evolve in similar ways when reacting to similar biogeographical environments. 15. (D) Conduction is the transfer of molecules by collisions, passing heat through one material into another. 16. (B) Convection is caused by the flow of heated liquid or gas through a volumetric medium. 17. (A) Radiation is waves traveling through space to transfer heat away from the energy source. 18. (B) On the actual GED® test, you would mark two hot spots. Answers in the range of the box are acceptable. It is important to understand from the text that the oxygen levels will drop significantly. It is also important to know how to graph this appropriately.

Dissolved Oxygen (% saturation)

106 104 102 100 98 96 94 92 90 03:00 00:00 Midnight

06:00

09:00

12:00 Noon

15:00

18:00

21:00

00:00 Midnight

Time

Science

Changes in pond’s dissolved oxygen saturation level over 24-hour period.

118

19. (A) The respiration reaction discussed in the paragraph is an exothermic reaction, releasing energy for the cell’s use. It is also a decomposition reaction rather than a combination or replacement reaction. 20. [3 pts possible] As the amount of daylight per day decreases in autumn and winter there is less photosynthesis and more respiration. (1 pt) The oxygen levels in the pond will decrease and the pond will not be able to support as many fish. (1 pt) The population of fish will drop off until the sunlight begins to increase again. (1 pt) 21. (A) Energy flows through the entire ecosystem in one direction, from producers to consumers and on to decomposers through the food chain. 22. (D) As shown in the following Punnett square, the only way offspring could be albino is if each parent has at least one recessive gene for albinism. Since both have a normal phenotype, both must have the Nn genotype. Each parent must also have one recessive allele for albinism in order to produce one nn child. N

n

N

NN

Nn

n

Nn

nn

23. (C) The albino parent from the F1 cross must have the nn genotype. As shown in the following Punnett square, if the mate was albino (nn) all the offspring would be albino, and if the mate was homozygous (NN) then all the offspring would be normal. In order to produce both phenotypes, the second parent must be heterozygous (Nn). n

n

N

Nn

Nn

N

nn

nn Practice Test 119

24. (D) All offspring of two albino parents (each must have the genotype nn) will be albino, so the answer is 0%. 25. (A) Referring to the Punnett square in answer 22, it is clear that the Nn × Nn cross would yield 1 out of 4 albino (homozygous), 1 out of 4 homozygous normal (NN), and 2 out of 4 heterozygous normal (Nn) children. 26. (B) The correct balanced equation is: CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O 27. The troposphere is the densest atmospheric layer, accounting for most of the mass of the atmosphere, it contains 99% of the water vapor found in the atmosphere. 28. (B) The numbers of marine animals that are primary consumers in the ocean food web would decrease because of the decrease in phytoplankton and marine algae that they depend on. The small size of the organisms does not affect their importance to the ecosystem (A). The number of consumers would decrease, not increase, with the loss of microorganisms. Decomposers would also decrease due to the overall effect on the ocean food web. 29. (D) The most likely effect is that clear waters in alpine (mountain) and polar lakes would allow UV radiation to penetrate to a greater depth, which would increase the potential damage to the organisms in the lakes and thus to the entire ecosystem. By affecting rates of photosynthesis and reproduction, this abiotic factor would probably decrease biodiversity and limit the carrying capacity of each lake.

Science

30. (A)

120

A food chain is usually limited to no more than five trophic levels because of a nearly 90% loss of energy at each trophic level. Loss of energy is caused by such factors as heat loss from chemical reactions, energy lost as waste, and the fact that not all lower level organisms are consumed by organisms at the next higher level.

31. (B) Both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells have cytoplasm. However, the cytoplasm in the prokaryote is granular and viscous and the nuclear material floats freely without a nuclear membrane. Eukaryotes are indeed much larger than prokaryotes, but the latter has a much more primitive structure. Prokaryotes are unicellular and do not have distinct organelles. 32. (C) Phagocytes are special cells that ingest invasive microbes as part of the body’s nonspecific immune response in the second line of defense against disease. The other answer choices are all part of the first line of defense. 33. (D) Acceleration is determined with the following equation: average acceleration = a=

change in velocity time

v 2 − v1 0 − 12 m/sec = = −0.334 m/sec 2 t 36 sec

34. (B) In this food pyramid, toads are secondary consumers that feed on the herbivore grasshoppers, which are primary consumers. 35. (B) The dotted line in the graph represents the point at which the habitat’s carrying capacity is reached and population growth therefore levels out. Factors such as lack of competitors and frequency of reproduction would affect the carrying capacity of a habitat but are not specifically represented by the dotted line. Limiting factors (disease, predators, toxic environment, natural disasters, etc.) are those that prevent a population from growing to its biotic potential.

Practice Test 121

36. (A) The Florida panther, with its drastically reduced numbers, was subject to the bottleneck effect, in which a reduced population must survive by inbreeding and is consequently much more vulnerable to the effects of certain alleles than usual. This frequently results in genetic defects in the population. This is in fact what happened to the Florida panther. While it has avoided extinction, its population now has certain genetic defects including a hole in the heart. 37. (B) Substances that compete to attach to an enzyme’s active site are called inhibitors. If they attach to the enzyme first, the cellular reaction (in this case the synthesis of prostaglandins) will not take place. A hormone is a specific chemical messenger used throughout the endocrine system. The COX-2 inhibitor is a molecule, not an ion. Prosthetic groups and cofactors are substances that work with enzymes to enhance certain reactions, whereas an inhibitor will limit the reaction. 38. (C) The fertilized ovum attaches to the endometrium, which is the inside wall of the uterus. 39. (B) Memory cells are a kind of  T cell that is created when an antigen such as the chicken pox virus appears. Unlike plasma cells, which fight an antigen for about two weeks, memory cells remain in a person’s system for a very long time, ready to reactivate immediately should the same antigen reappear. Memory cells are always specific to a pathogen, so that an adult person who has never had a certain virus will not have memory cells in his or her system to attack that antigen. That person may, however, have memory cells keyed to another antigen. 40. (D) The cohesive properties of water are due to the hydrogen bonding between water molecules. This aids in capillary action, in which water moves upward in the narrow fibers of a plant or tree from the roots to the leaves. The ability of water to cool down and heat up slowly (A) is due to its high heat capacity, not its strong cohesion. Water floats as a solid (B) because it expands upon freezing. It is a universal solvent (C) because it is a highly polar molecule. 41. (B)

Science

Transpiration is part of the water cycle, and is the process by which plants release water vapor into the air.

122

42. (B) Fermentation is an anaerobic process producing two ATP molecules per glucose molecule. 43. (C) The Kreb’s Cycle breaks down pyruvic acid molecules into CO2 molecules, H+ (protons), and 2 ATP molecules and liberates two electrons as the second step of cellular respiration. 44. (C) and (B) Independent Variable

Temperature (°C)

Dependent Variable

Rate of Reaction

45. (B) Various species of bacteria and fungi break excess nitrates back down into elements, a process that releases elemental nitrogen back into the air. This process is called denitrification. Ammonification and decomposition are both processes that break substances down but do not release nitrogen into the air. Nitrogen fixing makes nitrogen available to plant roots. 46. (D) As temperature increases, the reaction rate of an enzyme also increases. However, above an optimal temperature, the reaction rate decreases rapidly. This is because the enzyme molecules become altered as their hydrogen bonds begin to break. The enzyme then becomes “denatured,” or incapable of fitting with its substrate and catalyzing the reaction. Graph D shows this situation, with the graph line peaking at 37° then falling off. 47. (B) Diagram B shows the Sun/Earth/Moon alignment of the full moon. During a full moon, as during a new moon, the spring tide is in effect since the gravitational pull of the sun and moon work together in a 180° force to pull the tides into the highest tides of any time.

Practice Test 123

48. (B) Sodium would be considered most highly reactive. 49. (D) It is a poor conclusion since the two gases have very different reactions. 50. (C)

Science

Density and phase measured physical properties.

124

SOCIAL STUDIES 50 questions 90 minutes

Amendments to the U.S. Constitution 1

Guarantees freedom of religion, speech, assembly, and press, and the right to petition the government

2

Protects the rights of states to maintain a militia and of citizens to bear arms

3

Restricts the quartering of troops in private homes

4

Protects against unreasonable searches and seizures

5

Assures the right not to be deprived of life, liberty, and property without due process of law

6

Guarantees the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury

7

Assures the right to a jury trial in cases involving the common law, the law established by previous court decisions

8

Protects against excessive bail or cruel and unusual punishment

9

Provides that people’s right are not restricted to those specified in the first eight amendments

10

Restates the Constitution’s principle of federalism by providing that powers not granted to the national government nor prohibited to the states are reserved to the states and to the people

1. The chart above lists the first amendments to the United States Constitution. Amendment one is known as A. the Rights of the Accused. B. the Five Freedoms. C. the Preamble. D. the Bill of Rights 2. Amendments four to eight are referred to as A. the Rights of the Accused. B. the Five Freedoms. C. the Preamble.

Social Studies

D. the Bill of Rights.

126

3. In the third amendment the word quartering means A. cutting B. blocking C. housing D. measuring According to the Consumer Price Index Inflation calculator, the graph below details the rate of inflation in 10-year increments. Value of $50.00 in 2013 450 400

Axis Title

350 300 250 $50.00

200 150 100 50 0 1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2010

Source: Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics

4. According to the data in the graph above, what is the mean value of $50.00 over the past six decades? A. Approximately $300 B. Approximately $200 C. Approximately $115 D. Approximately $80

Practice Test 127

Number of Slaves 1850–1860 Virgina

South Carolina 1860 1850

Mississippi

Alabama 0

100,000

200,000

300,000

400,000

500,000

5. According to this graph, which state had almost as many slaves in 1850 as in 1860? Select



Virginia Mississippi Alabama South Carolina

6. Accoring to the graph, which state had the greatest increase in the number of slaves in 1860? Select Virginia Alabama Mississippi

Social Studies

South Carolina

128



7. After examining this graph, identify the correlation and/or causation of the decrease in the housing market due to unemployment.

Decrease in Housing Market Due to Unemployment 40.00%

0.30% 0.20%

20.00%

0.10% 0.00%

0.00% 2008 unemployment

2009

2010

decline in housing market

2011 foreclosures

Homessearch.com and US Bureau of Labor and Statistics

A. The unemployment rate increased from 2008 to 2011 causing the number of foreclosures to increase. B. The unemployment rate remained steady from 2009 to 2011; however, the decrease in the housing market increased. C. The unemployment rate, decline in housing market, and number of foreclosures are unrelated. D. The foreclosures increased steadily throughout the period between 2008 and 2011 with little or no correlation to the unemployment rate.

Practice Test 129

Status of the States, 1861

States that seceded before April 15, 1861 States that seceded after April 15, 1861 Union states that permitted slavery Union states that banned slavery Territories

8. According to the above map, April 15, 1861 was significant. What conclusion can be made about this date? A. The United States had a new president. B. The line drawn by the Missouri Compromise in 1850 did not apply to California. C. The territories did not have slavery.

Social Studies

D. The Southern states had seceded from the Union.

130

Use this information to answer Questions 9 and 10. This letter, printed widely in American newspapers, was written by George W. Harkins, chief of the Choctaw tribe, in response to the brutal Indian removals to new homes in the West.

George W. Harkins to the American People, February 25, 1832 In his letter, yet it is said that our present movements are our own voluntary acts — such is not the case. We found ourselves like a benighted stranger, following false guides, until he was surrounded on every side, with fire and water. The fire was certain destruction, and a feeble hope was left him of escaping by water. A distant view of the opposite shore encourages the hope; to remain would be inevitable annihilation. Who would hesitate, or who would say that his plunging into the water was his own voluntary act? Painful in the extreme is the mandate of our expulsion. We regret that it should proceed from the mouth of our professed friend, for whom our blood was co-mingled with that of his bravest warriors, on the field of danger and death. I ask you in the name of justice, for repose for myself and for my injured people. Let us alone — we will not harm you, we want rest. We hope, in the name of justice, that another outrage may never be committed against us, and that we may for the future be cared for as children, and not driven about as beasts, which are benefited by a change of pasture.

9. In his letter, George W. Harkins is referring to which of the following? A. Indian Removal Act B. Civil Rights Movement C. American Indian Movement D. People’s Protest at the University of Berkeley 10. In referring to the letter written by George W. Harkins, which conclusion can you draw from the information? A. The Choctaw tribe was leaving their lands voluntarily. B. The Choctaw tribe was being forced to leave their lands. C. The Choctaw tribe had no land. D. The Choctaw tribe wanted to move to another place.

Practice Test 131

11. Based on the map, which of the following is the most likely conclusion one could draw?

NORTH AMERICA

ASIA

EUROPE

9

7

1

8

Tropic of Cancer 5

6

AFRICA

Equator 2

SOUTH AMERICA

Tropic of Capricorn

10

3

AUSTRALIA

4

1. Great Basin Desert 2. Peruvian Desert 3. Atacama Desert

4. Patagonian Desert 5. Sahara Desert 6. Arabian Desert

7. Turkestan Desert 8. Great Indian Desert 9. Gobi Desert

10. Kalahari and Namib Deserts

A. Most desertification occurs near the equator. B. The largest area of desert can be found in Northern Africa. C. There is a large desert area in South America.

Social Studies

D. There is no desert in Australia.

132

Use the following information to answer Questions 12 and 13. The Constitution allows the federal government and the states to exercise some nearly identical powers. Both governments can make and enforce similar laws. For example, states make laws regulating state elections, while the federal government controls congressional and presidential elections. Both state legislatures and Congress can levy taxes, charter banks, and borrow money. Powers that exist at both levels are called concurrent powers.

The Federal System: Division of Powers Powers Delegated to the Federal Government Declare war Regulate interstate and foreign trade Coin money Establish post offices Set standards for weights and measurements Admit new states Establish foreign policy Establish laws for citizenship Regulate patents and copyrights Pass laws necessary for carrying out its powers

Powers Shared by the Federal and State Governments Enforce laws Borrow money Levy taxes Establish charter banks Provide for general welfare

Powers Reserved to the States Establish local governments Regulate commerce within a state Provide for public safety Create corporation laws Establish schools Make marriage laws Assume all the powers not granted to the federal government or prohibited by the Constitution

12. Which of the following are shared powers of the Federal and State governments? A. Make it possible for an immigrant to become a citizen of the United States B. Provide the legal basis and charter for a new bank in the state of Wyoming C. Establish a new school system in Shelby County, Tennessee D. Admit Puerto Rico as a new state 13. In the introduction of this chart the word concurrent most likely means which of the following? A. Next to one another B. Shared by both federal and state C. Occurring in two geographic places at the same time Practice Test

D. Near but not next to one another

133

Trends in Urban Populations — Current and Projected 1975

2000

2025

1. Tokyo, Japan

26.6

1. Tokyo, Japan

34.5

1. Tokyo, Japan

36.4

2. New York- Newark, USA

15.9

2. Mexico City, Mexico

18

2. Bombay, India

26.4

3. Mexico City, Mexico

10.7

3. New York-Newark, USA

17.9

3. Delhi, India

22.5

4. Osaka-Kobe, Japan

9.8

4. São Paulo, Brazil

17.1

4. Dhaka, Bangladesh

22

5. São Paulo, Brazil

9.6

5. Bombay, India

16.1

5. São Paulo, Brazil

21.4

6. Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, USA

8.9

6. Shanghai, China

13.2

6. Mexico City, Mexico

21

7. Buenos Aires, Argentina

8.8

7. Calcutta, India

13.1

7. New York-Newark, USA

20.6

8. Paris, France

8.6

8. Delhi, India

12.4

8. Calcutta, India

20.6

9. Calcutta, India

7.9

9. Buenos Aires, Argentina

11.9

9. Shanghai, China

19.4

10. Moscow, Russian Federation

7.6

10. Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana, USA

11.8

10. Karachi, Pakistan

19.1

Source: United Nations, World Urbanization Prospects, The 2007 Revision.

Refugees in the United States in 2010 Iran 3% Bhutanese 12%

Africa 12%

Iraq 17%

East Asia 17%

Near East and South Asia 34%

14. Based on the information in the chart above,

Latin America and Caribbean 5%

Select Delhi

Social Studies

Mexico City

134

Tokyo

populous city in the world in 2025.



will be the most

15. According to the graph, what conclusion can be made about refugees in the United States in 2010? A. More than half the refugees in the United States were from Asia. B. Latin America and the Caribbean were a great source of refugees in 2010. C. Refugees come to the United States from Europe. D. Iran and Iraq had a large number of refugees. 16. The smallest number of refugees in the United States came from .

and

Use the following information to answer Questions 17–19. In 1798, Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts. The Alien Act gave the government the right to expel immigrants who were a threat to the “Peace and Safety of the United States.” The Sedition Act was to prevent people from speaking out against the government. Some people felt these acts violated the Constitution. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison wrote resolutions that illustrated this idea. As a result, Kentucky and Virginia adopted the resolutions. Kentucky declared that states had the right to nullify, or strike down, such an act of Congress. This became a major issue in the Presidential election in 1800. Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr ran against John Adams and Charles Pinckney. The election resulted in a tie. The House of Representatives had to decide the winner. Finally, Jefferson was declared the winner. Since the election created so many problems, the 12th Amendment was added to the U.S. Constitution. AMENDMENT XII Passed by Congress December 9, 1803. Ratified June 15, 1804 . . . The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President. . . http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/constitution_amendments_11-27.html

Practice Test 135

17. After reading this passage, you should see a clear series of cause and effects. In the chart below, arrange the events in the correct sequence. 1. Congress passed the Alien and Sedition Acts

Election of 1800

2. Jefferson and Madison write resolutions

4.

3.

Jefferson declared the winner

5.

  The 12th Amendment is added to the Constitution.   Virginia and Kentucky adopt nullification.   Jefferson and Adams have an equal number of votes.

18. In the text, the word nullify means which of the following? A. To bring about B. To strike down C. To add to the Constitution D. To become higher in rank 19. The 12th Amendment was one important result of the election of 1800. According to the excerpt, what is the purpose of the passing this Amendment? A. To make Thomas Jefferson the President of the United States B. To provide a way to decide who is president in the event of an equal number of votes C. To help the House of Representatives make Thomas Jefferson the president

Social Studies

D. To give the Electoral College more power

136

20. The area on the map above is known as the Fertile Crescent. What is the reason for this name? A. It is a place of large population B. It is an area where people travel a great deal C. It is between two rivers which makes the land very productive D. It is a place where people migrate often 21. The Fertile Crescent is between the

and the

rivers.

Read the passage below and then answer Questions 22 and 23. John Adams was about to leave the office of President when he made several last minute appointments including judges and court officials. President Jefferson ordered his Secretary of State, James Madison, not to deliver the appointment papers. William Marbury was one of those appointments. He went to the Supreme Court in a case against Madison. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that Marbury had no right to appeal. This was the first time the Supreme Court ruled a law unconstitutional. The very essence of civil liberty certainly consists in the right of every individual to claim the protection of the laws, whenever he receives an injury. One of the first duties of government is to afford that protection. [The] government of the United States has been emphatically termed a government of laws, and not of men. It will certainly cease to deserve this high appellation, if the laws furnish no remedy for the violation of a vested legal right. . . .

Practice Test 137

By the constitution of the United States, the President is invested with certain important political powers, in the exercise of which he is to use his own discretion, and is accountable only to his country in his political character, and to his own conscience. To aid him in the performance of these duties, he is authorized to appoint certain officers, who act by his authority and in conformity with his orders. In such cases, their acts are his acts; and whatever opinion may be entertained of the manner in which executive discretion may be used, still there exists, and can exist, no power to control that discretion. The subjects are political. They respect the nation, not individual rights, and being entrusted to the executive, the decision of the executive is conclusive. www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=19&page=transcript

22. Marbury vs. Madison is one of the most important Supreme Court rulings in United States history. Since the decision, many cases have gone before the Courts. Based on this information and the information in the previous paragraphs, why was this ruling so significant? A. Denied Adams’s right to make midnight appointments B. Upheld Adams’s right to make midnight appointments C. Confirmed Congress’s power to expand judicial authority D. Affirmed the power of the court to declare a law unconstitutional 23. The process established in the case of Marbury v. Madison is called the Judicial Review. It extends the power of the

Select



branch of government.

executive legislative judicial

24. What organization was often the target of mass demonstrations, a few of them violent, against globalization? A. WTO B. NAFTA C. NATO

Social Studies

D. UN

138

Use this chart to answer Questions 25 and 26. Number with One Type of Health Insurance 60 50 40 30

2010

20

2011

10 0 te

a riv

p

em

p

lo

t

t

re

en

en

ym

g

ov

n er

id

ica

m

ed

ica

ed

m

m

ry

ta

ili

d

re

su

n ni

u

25. Based on the information in this chart, what are the implications concerning health insurance? A. More people were insured in 2011 than in 2010. B. The number of uninsured have decreased. C. The number of insured overall have increased. D. More people are insured by Medicare and Medicaid. 26. According to the information in the chart, what predictions can be made for 2014? A. The number of uninsured will decrease. B. The number of insured will increase. C. The number of uninsured will increase. D. The number of insured by the military will increase.

Practice Test 139

Read the passage below and answers Question 27 and 28. The Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) requires each of the nationwide credit reporting companies — Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion — to provide you with a free copy of your credit report, at your request, once every 12 months. The FCRA promotes the accuracy and privacy of information in the files of the nation’s credit reporting companies. The Federal Trade Commission (FTC), the nation’s consumer protection agency, enforces the FCRA with respect to credit reporting companies. A credit report includes information on where you live, how you pay your bills, and whether you’ve been sued or have filed for bankruptcy. Nationwide credit reporting companies sell the information in your report to creditors, insurers, employers, and other businesses that use it to evaluate your applications for credit, insurance, employment, or renting a home. Your credit report has information that affects whether you can get a loan — and how much you will have to pay to borrow money. You want a copy of your credit report to: • make sure the information is accurate, complete, and up-to-date before you apply for a loan for a major purchase like a house or car, buy insurance, or apply for a job. • help guard against identity theft. That’s when someone uses your personal information — like your name, your Social Security number, or your credit card number — to commit fraud. Identity thieves may use your information to open a new credit card account in your name. Then, when they don’t pay the bills, the delinquent account is reported on your credit report. Inaccurate information like that could affect your ability to get credit, insurance, or even a job

27. According to the excerpt, what information is found in your credit report? A. Your education level, income amount, and debt amounts B. Your payment and credit history C. Your parents or other family members credit history D. Your bank account numbers 28. Based on the information in the excerpt, why do you need a credit report?

Social Studies



140

Write a short statement to answer the question.

Read the passage and answer Questions 29–32. Amendment VI In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence. Source: www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/bill_of_rights_transcript.html

29. Which of the following is NOT provided for in the Sixth Amendment? A. A mistrial B. An innocent person convicted of crimes he did not commit C. A lengthy trial D. The services of an attorney. 30. As it is used in the above text, what does the word impartial mean? A. Half B. Fair C. Long D. Large 31. Some trials do not take place in the “district wherein the crime shall have been committed” when the attorney of the accused asks for a “change of venue.” What does the term “change of venue” mean? A. More people to select as jurors B. A different location for the trial since it may be difficult to find an impartial jury in the area the crime was committed C. A larger location in the event of a large attendance D. A different attorney since the accused cannot pay.

Practice Test 141

This is a map of the exploration route of Hernando de Soto.

Source: internation.loc.gov

32. Based on the map, Hernando de Soto explored the

Select northeast northwest southeast southwest

Social Studies

the United States.

142



regions of

Use the chart below to answer Questions 33–35. Unemployment—25 Years and Older 14 12 10 8 2012

6

2013

4 2 0 Less than High School

High School Diploma

Some College

Bachelor Degree or More

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 4-8-2013

33. Based on the information in the chart

Select



people with high school

more less the same number of

diplomas are unemployed than those with a Bachelor’s degree. 34. According to this chart, the unemployment rate for people over 25 years old Select  in 2013 when compared to 2012. increased decreased stayed the same

35. Which of the following conclusions can be made about unemployment of people with no college education? A. Education will not make a difference in the unemployment rate for people in the future. B. Education plays a significant role in finding and keeping a job now and in the future. C. People who have less than a high school diploma can get good paying jobs. Practice Test

D. People with a high school diploma do not need to further their education in order to find and keep jobs.

143

Read the passage and answer Question 36. President Reagan’s 1986 State of the Union Message to Congress was originally scheduled for the day of the Challenger explosion, January 28, 1986, but was postponed by a week in response to the accident. Reagan begins his message by paying tribute to “the brave seven” Challenger crew members and later reiterates the nation’s commitment to the space program. This is a select page from the official copy Reagan handed to the President of the Senate before the address. The text differs slightly from the final speech made by the President.

Social Studies

RG 46, Records of the U.S. Senate

144

(continued)

(continued)

36. This document refers to the Challenger explosion several times. Based on the information in this document and your prior knowledge, which of the following describes the Challenger? A. An airplane crash B. A war mission in Cuba C. A space shuttle D. A missile launched, but failed to fire Use the following information to answer Question 37. The United States’ involvement in war has been costly throughout history. However, it becomes increasingly more expensive as the technology is improved. The American Revolution, which lasted eight years, cost $101 million. The War of 1812, lasting only 3 years, cost $90 million. The Civil War, which waged for only four years, was intense and widespread, costing an estimated $5 billion. Once warfare spread to other countries and grew in technological capabilities, it became much more expensive. World War I cost $20 billion in the four years of American involvement. However, World War II, which lasted six years, cost $296 billion.

Practice Test 145

37. Which of the following graphics supports the information in the paragraph? A.

Cost of Wars

Millions of Dollars

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1775–1783

1812–1815

American Revolution

B.

1861–1865

1917–1921

War of 1812

Civil War

Cost of War

Vietnam WWI (in dollars) 0

C.

Social Studies



146

WWII $100,000,000 $200,000,000 $300,000,000 $400,000,000

War

Duration

Cost

American Revolution

8 years

$101,000,000

War of 1812

3 years

$90,000,000

Civil War

4 years

$5,000,000,000

WWI

4 years

$20,000,000,000

WWII

6 years

$296,000,000,000

D.

Civil War World War I

American Revolution War of 1812



United States, Per Capita Personal Income, 2011

Source: BEA U.S. = 41,663

44,673 to 73,105

41,591 to 44,672

34,651 to 37,973

32,176 to 34,650

37,974 to 41,590

38. Based on the map above, the states with the lowest per capital person income in 2011 were found in which of the following locations? A. North and west B. Northeast D. Around large cities

Practice Test

C. No specific area, but all parts of the nation

147

Read the following passages to answer Questions 39 and 40.

Social Studies

After September 11, 2001, the United States Government saw a need for more security. As a result, the Department of Homeland Security was created. This government department was first charged with the duties of preventing terrorism. However, the role of Homeland Security expanded into a large organization with various duties. Below is an example of information about this department.

148

Practice Test

In addition to the tasks listed on the excerpt of the DHS website, this department is also in charge of immigration and citizenship services and immigration enforcement.

149

39. Based on the information, which of the following would be an area Homeland Security would investigate? A. Searching for drug smugglers in Mexico B. Going to Iran to find terrorist groups C. Providing assistance after an earthquake in California D. Investigating a shooting in Peru 40. As used in the excerpt, the word vigilance most likely can be defined by which of the following? A. A religious ritual B. An alert watchfulness C. A long ceremony D. An attack on the country Use the chart and graph below to answer Questions 41 and 42. The Atlantic Slave Trade, 1451–1870

Social Studies

Number of Slaves Transported (in thousands)

150

1451–1600

1601–1700

1701–1810

1811–1870

Totals

British North America





348.0

51.0

399.0

Spanish America (Including the Sp. Caribbean)

75.0

292.5

578.6

606.0

1552.1

Caribbean Islands (Dutch, British, and French



483.5

3,233.7

96.0

3,813.2

Portuguese Brazil

50.0

550.0

1,891.4

1,145.4

3,636.8

Europe, Africa, and Asia

149.9

25.1





175.0

Totals

274.9

1,235.1

6,051.7

1,898.4

9,576.1

Slave Transportation 700 600 500 British North America

400

Spanish America

300

Europe

200 100 0

1451–1600

1601–1700

1701–1810

1811–1870

41. According to the chart and graph, the transportation of slaves increased sharply in which of the following countries? A. Europe B. The United States C. Spanish America D. British North America 42. The Slave trade drastically decreased in British North America. Which of the following is the best explanation for this drop in numbers in 1811–1870? A. There were no more Africans to become slaves. B. There were no crops or work for which slave labor was needed. C. Great Britain abolished slavery in all of its colonies. D. Spanish America had more resources to purchase and transport slaves.

Practice Test 151

Use the following passage and map to answer Questions 43 and 44. Louisiana Purchase Treaty, 1803 “Let the Land rejoice, for you have bought Louisiana for a Song.” Gen. Horatio Gates to President Thomas Jefferson, July 18, 1803 Robert Livingston and James Monroe closed on the sweetest real estate deal of the millennium when they signed the Louisiana Purchase Treaty in Paris on April 30, 1803. They were authorized to pay France up to $10 million for the port of New Orleans and the Floridas. When offered the entire territory of Louisiana–an area larger than Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal combined–the American negotiators swiftly agreed to a price of $15 million. Although President Thomas Jefferson was a strict interpreter of the Constitution who wondered if the U.S. Government was authorized to acquire new territory, he was also a visionary who dreamed of an “empire for liberty” that would stretch across the entire continent. As Napoleon threatened to take back the offer, Jefferson squelched whatever doubts he had, submitted the treaty to Congress, and prepared to occupy a land of unimaginable riches. The Louisiana Purchase added 828,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River to the United States. For roughly 4 cents an acre, the United States had purchased a territory whose natural resources amounted to a richness beyond anyone’s wildest calculations.

Social Studies

Source: www.ourdocuments.gov

152

43. President Jefferson was reluctant to agree to the purchase of the Louisiana Territory because A. He was unsure the Constitution allowed him to make the agreement. B. He was afraid the Indians would be upset. C. He thought New Orleans would become a large trade center and difficult to control since it was so far from Washington, D.C. D. Spain had claimed the area as theirs, so Jefferson feared it might cause a war with Spain. 44. Jefferson was a Republican. When the Federalists learned about the Louisiana Purchase, they were upset. Which of the following can be inferred about the reason the Federalists were upset? A. The Federalists thought the British were involved in the deal. B. The Federalists feared more slave states would enter the Union. C. The Federalists were concerned that more states would become Republican. D. The Federalists understood that the Constitution did not authorize the purchase. Read the following passage and then answer Questions 45–47. The woman suffrage movement was first seriously proposed in the United States at Seneca Falls, NY, July 19, 1848, in a general declaration of the rights of women prepared by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, and several others. The early leaders of the movement in the United States—Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Lucy Stone, Abby Kelley Foster, Angelina Grimké, Sarah Grimké, and others—were usually also advocates of temperance and of the abolition of slavery. When, however, after the close of the Civil War, the 15 Amendment (1870) gave the franchise to newly emancipated African American men, but not to the women who had helped win it for them, the suffragists for the most part confined their efforts to the struggle for the vote.

Practice Test

The National Woman Suffrage Association, led by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, was formed in 1869 to agitate for an amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Another organization, the American Woman Suffrage Association, led by Lucy Stone, was organized the same year to work through the state legislatures. In the 1870s, disheartened by the response to the proposed Federal amendment, suffragists also tried other approaches to winning the vote. These included using the courts to challenge their exclusion from voting on the grounds that, as citizens, they could not be deprived of their rights as protected by the Constitution. In 1872, Susan B. Anthony attempted to vote, hoping to be arrested and to have the opportunity to test this strategy in the courts. She was arrested and indicted for “knowingly, wrongfully and unlawfully vot[ing] for a representative to the Congress of the United States.” Found guilty and fined, she insisted she

153

would never pay a dollar of it. Virginia Minor, a suffrage leader in St. Louis, succeeded in getting the issue before the United States Supreme Court, but in 1875 the Court ruled unanimously that citizenship did not automatically confer the right to vote and that the issue of female enfranchisement should be decided within the states. These differing approaches—i.e., whether to seek a Federal amendment or to work for state amendments—kept the woman suffrage movement divided until 1890, when the two societies were united as the National American Woman Suffrage Association. Later leaders included Anna Howard Shaw and Carrie Chapman Catt. Several of the states and territories (with Wyoming first, in 1869) granted suffrage to the women within their borders. By 1913, 12 states and territories had granted voting rights to women, so the National Woman’s party, under the leadership of Alice Paul, Lucy Burns, and others, resolved to use the voting power of the enfranchised women to force a suffrage resolution through Congress and secure ratification from the state legislatures. In 1920 the 19th Amendment to the Constitution granted nationwide suffrage to women. The 19th amendment guarantees all American women the right to vote. Achieving this milestone required a lengthy and difficult struggle; victory took decades of agitation and protest. Beginning in the mid-19th century, several generations of woman suffrage supporters lectured, wrote, marched, lobbied, and practiced civil disobedience to achieve what many Americans considered a radical change of the Constitution. Few early supporters lived to see final victory in 1920. Source: National Archives ourdocuments.gov

45. According to the excerpt, Suffragettes were involved in several other movements as well. Which of the following includes the other causes these women championed? A. War protests B. Environmental protests C. Temperance and abolition of slavery D. World peace

Social Studies

46. According to the excerpt, the women suffragist used several methods to gain attention to their cause including: (place a check beside the correct answers)

154

___ Formed organizations

___ held meetings

___ Went to the courts

___ participated in parades

47. Which suffragist made a daring attempt to challenge the denial of women’s vote by attempting to vote anyway? She was arrested, convicted, and fined. A. Elizabeth Cady Stanton B. Lucy Stone C. Virginia Minor D. Susan B. Anthony Read the passage and then answer Question 48. In 1972, Richard Nixon assumed the United State Presidential office as a popular incumbent. However, his tenure in the office was a turbulent time for the nation. In June 1972, police arrested five men who had broken into the Democratic National Convention headquarters in the Watergate office building in Washington DC. The media discovered those arrested were members of the committee to reelect the President. One worked at the White House. As a result, people began to question whether the President was aware of this plot. Then, during the investigation, the White House staff engaged in steps to hide evidence pointing to the President. By 1974 the evidence had mounted against the President who resigned from the office of United States President.

48. After reading the passage, arrange the following information in the order of the events which lead to the resignation of President Richard Nixon. A. Steps to cover up the president’s knowledge of the Watergate crime B. The Supreme Court Case of United States v. Richard Nixon C. Discovery that White House staff members were involved D. Break-in at the Democratic National Convention headquarters “It is common sense to take a method and try it. If it fails, admit it frankly and try another. But above all, try something.” — Franklin D. Roosevelt

Practice Test 155

49. Which of the following is President Roosevelt referring to in the above quote? A. His plan for the future B. His disability C. His New Deal Plan D. His job as President 50. Which of the following is used to release a person from improper imprisonment? A. A writ of mandamus B. A writ of habeas corpus C. The Supreme Court’s decision in Roe v. Wade

Social Studies

D. Ex post facto laws

156

Answers 1. B. The Five Freedoms Option. Option A is part of the Bill of Rights. The entire chart provides the Bill of Rights which is Option D. Option C is the beginning of the Constitution. 2. A. The Rights of the Accused. The four Amendments contain information concerning being arrested, searched, and trials. 3. C. Housing. As used in the context of the sentence housing soldiers in private homes. The other three options do not match the meaning of the word. 4. C. Calculate the mean by adding the numbers and dividing. 5. Virginia Since the graph shows the bars are almost equal in size. 6. Mississippi The 1860 line for Mississippi is longer than the other choices. 7. D. The decrease in housing may not be due to unemployment. The graph is inconclusive and shows there is no correlation of the two. 8. D. The Southern states had seceded from the Union. Options A and B are not found on this map. Option C is not true since the laws had not been determined for the territory. 9. A. Practice Test

Indian Removal Act. Option C might be a possible answer except the AIM was a protest movement in the 1960s. Option B and D do not relate to the document.

157

10. B. The Choctaw tribe was being forced to leave their lands. In Harkins’ letter he states that his people are said to go voluntarily, but that is false. Option A is the opposite of the correct answer. Option C and D are not stated in the letter. 11. B. The largest area of desert can be found in Northern Africa 12. B. Provide the legal basis and charter for a new bank in the state of Wyoming. Option A and D are powers of the Federal government. Option C is a power of the state. 13. B. Shared by both federal and state. The last sentence of the passage clearly states the definition of the word. 14. Tokyo. You should pay attention to the chart’s information and structure. 15. A. The Near East and South Asia combined with East Asia is 51%. 16. Iran, Latin America, and the Caribbean. 17. 3. Virginia and Kentucky adopt nullification; 4. Jefferson and Adams have an equal number of votes; and 5. The 12th Amendment is added to the Constitution. 18. B.

Social Studies

In the text, the word nullify means to strike down.

158

19. B. To provide a way to decide who is President in the event of an equal number of votes. Option A and C are incorrect since the amendment was not added for the purpose of winning elections. Option D is the opposite since the amendment was made to clarify the role of the electoral college. 20. C. It is between two rivers which makes the land very productive. Option A, B, and D are not supported by the map. 21. Tigris and Euphrates These are the only rivers on the map. 22. D. Marbury vs. Madison affirmed the power of the Court to declare a law unconstitutional. 23. Judicial Judicial review allows the court to review a case to determine whether a law is unconstitutional. 24. A. WTO — World Trade Organization. Option D, the UN is a world organization, but not faced with protest against globalization. The others are not world organizations; therefore, they are not connected to globalization. 25. D. More people are insured by Medicare and Medicaid. 26. C. The number of uninsured will increase. Option D would be difficult to predict. 27. B. Your payment and credit history. Although debt amounts may be included, income and education level would not. This rules out option A. No information for parents or family is needed, and no bank account numbers would be included. Chapter  159

28. You need a credit report to get a loan, to figure out how much interest you will pay, to make sure it is accurate, and to help guard against identify theft. 29. C. A lengthy trial. This Amendment guarantees a speedy and public trial. 30. B. Impartial in this passage means fair. 31. B. A different location for the trial since it may be difficult to find an impartial jury in the area the crime was committed. 32. Southeast The line which represents De Soto’s route is entirely located in the Southeast. 33. More The chart shows “high school diploma” to have the greatest number of unemployed. You should remember to read the titles of charts to determine what information is being measured. 34. Decreased According to the bar graph, the unemployment rate for people over 25 decreased. However, this may be explained by the fact that fewer people reported the status for this report. The graph must support the data even if it seems illogical. 35. B. Education plays a significant role in finding and keeping a job now and in the future. The other options are not supported by the information

Social Studies

36. C.

160

A space shuttle

37. C. B is incorrect since the passage does not mention Vietnam 38. C. No specific area, but all parts of the nation. Option D is incorrect since no cities are shown. The other options are not supported by the map. 39. C. Providing assistance after an earthquake in California. Homeland security does not investigate in other countries. 40. B. An alert watchfulness 41. C. Spanish America has the greatest increase on the chart and in the numbers. 42. C. Great Britain abolished slavery in all of its colonies. 43. A. He was unsure the Constitution allowed him to make the agreement. 44. C. The Federalists were concerned that more states would become Republican. 45. C. Temperance and abolition of slavery. The other options are not supported by the passage. 46. Formed organizations, held meetings, went to the courts should all be checked. Chapter  161

47. D. Susan B. Anthony attempted to vote. 48. D, A, C, B. Break-in at the Democratic National Conventions headquarters Steps to cover up the president’s knowledge of the Watergate crime Discovery that White House staff members were involved The Supreme Court Case of United States v. Richard M. Nixon 49. C. His New Deal Plan is the only option possible. The other options are not supported by the quote in any logical way. 50.

Social Studies

The primary function of a writ of habeas corpus is to effect the release of someone who has been imprisoned without due process of law.

GED Assessment Targets for the Practice Tests ®

• Reasoning Through Language Arts • Mathematical Reasoning • Science • Social Studies

GED® Assessment Targets for the Reasoning Through Language Arts Practice Test: Reading Section Question #

GED® Assessment Targets*

Webb’s DOK Level of    Complexity**

Question #

GED® Assessment Targets*

Webb’s DOK Level of    Complexity**

1

R.2.1

2

21

R.2.2

2

2

R.3.3

2

22

R.2.7

2

3

R.4.1/L.4.1

1

23

R.9.1/R.7.1

2

4

R.2.1, R.5.4

3

24

R.7.3

3

5

R.2.1, R.8.4

3

25

R.7.4

2

6

R.2.3

2

26

R.7.3

3

7

R.4.2/L.4.2

3

27

R.7.2

2

8

R.9.1/R.7.1

2

28

R.9.1/R.7.1

2

9

R.9.2

3

29

R.2.6

2

10

R.9.3

2

30

R.4.1/L.4.1

1

11

R.9.2

2

31

R.6.1

2

12

R.9.3

3

32

R.5.1

2

13

R.6.1

2

33

R.6.4

2

14

R.6.1

2

34

R.6.3

2

15

R.9.2

2

35

R.3.1

2

16

R.8.6

2

36

R.2.3

3

17

R.6.2

3

37

R.3.2

2

18

R.5.3

3

38

R.4.3/L.4.3, R.5.1

3

19

R.3.4

2

39

R.5.1

3

20

R.2.7

2

40

R.2.7, R.3.3

2

*For additional information regarding GED® Assessment Targets, go to www.gedtestingservice.com/educators/home. **GED® test items require test-takers to deal with three of the four levels (i.e., Levels 1 to 3) of Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DOK) model. Consistent with its mission as a vehicle to demonstrate college-and-career readiness, the GED® test places broad emphasis on the more complex demands presented at Levels 2 and 3. DOK levels equate with varying degrees of complexity (as opposed to difficulty), and ultimately describe the type of thinking required by a task – not whether the task is hard or easy. For an explanation of what each level of cognitive complexity embraces, please see pg. 169.

164

GED® Assessment Targets for the Reasoning Through Language Arts Practice Test: Language Section Question #

GED® Assessment Targets*

Webb’s DOK Level of    Complexity**

Question #

GED® Assessment Targets*

Webb’s DOK Level of    Complexity**

1

L.2.1

2

26

L.1.4

2

2

L.2.2

2

27

L.1.6

2

3

L.1.3

1

28

L.2.4

1

4

L.1.7

1

29

L.2.3

1

5

L.2.4

1

30

L.1.7

1

6

L.1.4

2

31

L.1.5

2

7

L.1.1, L.1.3

2

32

L.1.9

3

8

L.1.6

2

33

L.1.2

1

9

L.1.8

3

34

L.2.1

1

10

L.2.3

1

35

L.1.8

2

11

L.1.9

2

36

L.1.9

2

12

L.2.2

2

37

L.2.2

1

13

L.2.4

1

38

L.2.3

1

14

L.1.5

2

39

L.1.1

1

15

L.1.1

1

40

L.1.5

2

16

L.1.7

1

41

L.1.4

2

17

L.1.9

1

42

L.1.7

1

18

L.1.8

3

43

L.1.7

1

19

L.2.2

2

44

L.1.1

1

20

L.1.3

1

45

L.1.6

2

21

L.1.9

2

46

L.2.1

1

22

L.2.1

1

47

L.2.3

1

23

L.1.8

2

48

L.2.4

1

24

L.1.7

2

49

L.1.8

2

25

L.1.1

1

50

L.1.9

3

*For additional information regarding GED® Assessment Targets, go to www.gedtestingservice.com/educators/home. **GED® test items require test-takers to deal with three of the four levels (i.e., Levels 1 to 3) of Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DOK) model. Consistent with its mission as a vehicle to demonstrate college-and-career readiness, the GED® test places broad emphasis on the more complex demands presented at Levels 2 and 3. DOK levels equate with varying degrees of complexity (as opposed to difficulty), and ultimately describe the type of thinking required by a task – not whether the task is hard or easy. For an explanation of what each level of cognitive complexity embraces, please see pg. 169.

165

GED® Assessment Targets for the Mathematical Reasoning Practice Test Question #

GED® Assessment Targets*

Webb’s DOK Level of    Complexity**

Question #

GED® Assessment Targets*

Webb’s DOK Level of    Complexity**

1

A.3.c

1

27

Q.4.a

2

2

Q.4.b

2

28

Q.1.c

2

3

A.6.a

1

29

A.7.b

3

4

Q.8.a

3

30

A.10.b

1

5

Q.4.a

1

31

Q.4.a

1

6

Q.7.b

2

32

Q.1.e

2

7

Q.7.a

2

33

A.1.c

2

8

Q.3.b

2

34

Q.1.e

2

9

Q.9.a

2

35

Q.4.e

3

10

Q.6.c

2

36

A.12.a

2

11

A.2.a

1

37

Q.7.a

2

12

Q.3.a

3

38

Q.4.d

2

13

Q.8.a

3

39

Q.1b

3

14

A.4.a

3

40

A.4.b

1

15

A.5.a

3

41

Q.4.b

2

16

A.6.a

2

42

A.5.a

2

17

A.6.a

2

43

Q.8.a

3

18

Q.3.d

2

44

Q.4.c

2

19

Q.4.a

2

45

Q.9.b

2

20

A.5.b

2

46

Q.3.b

2

21

Q.4.c

3

47

Q.4.d

3

22

A.4.b

2

48

A.9.a

3

23

A.4.b

2

49

A.3.a

2

24

A.4.a

1

50

A.6.a

3

25

Q.4.e

2

51

Q.8

2

26

Q.1.b

2

*For additional information regarding GED® Assessment Targets, go to www.gedtestingservice.com/educators/home.

166

**GED® test items require test-takers to deal with three of the four levels (i.e., Levels 1 to 3) of Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DOK) model. Consistent with its mission as a vehicle to demonstrate college-and-career readiness, the GED® test places broad emphasis on the more complex demands presented at Levels 2 and 3. DOK levels equate with varying degrees of complexity (as opposed to difficulty), and ultimately describe the type of thinking required by a task – not whether the task is hard or easy. For an explanation of what each level of cognitive complexity embraces, please see pg. 169.

GED® Assessment Targets for the Science Practice Test Question #

GED® Assessment Targets*

Webb’s DOK Level of    Complexity**

Question #

GED® Assessment Targets*

Webb’s DOK Level of    Complexity**

1

L.d.1

1

26

P.c.3

2

2

L.b.1

1

27

ES.b.1

1

3

P.c.1

1

28

L.c.3, L.c.5, ES.b.1

3

4

L.d.1

2

29

L.c.3, L.c.5

3

5

P.b.2

1

30

L.c.2

2

6

P.b.2

1

31

L.d.1

2

7

P.b.1

1

32

L.d.1

2

8

P.b.1

1

33

SP.1.b, P.b.1

2

9

ES.a.2, ES.b.4

3

34

L.c.1

1

10

ES.a.2, ES.b.4

2

35

L.c.3

2

11

L.a.4

2

36

L.c.5

3

12

L.d.1

1

37

L.d.1

2

13

ES.c.1

2

38

L.a.1

1

14

L.f.2

3

39

L.a.4

1

15

P.a.1

1

40

P.c.2

2

16

P.a.1

1

41

ES.a.1

2

17

P.a.1

1

42

L.b.1

1

18

SP.1.c

2

43

L.b.1

1

19

SP.1.b

1

44

SP.2.e

2

20

L.c.2, L.c.3

3

45

L.c.1

1

21

L.c.2

1

46

SP.3.b

3

22

SP.1.b, SP.8.a, L.e.2

3

47

ES.c.2

2

23

SP.1.b, L.e.2

3

48

SP.3.b

1

24

SP.8.c

2

49

SP.4.a

3

25

SP.8.c

2

50

P.c.2

1

*For additional information regarding GED® Assessment Targets, go to www.gedtestingservice.com/educators/home. **GED® test items require test-takers to deal with three of the four levels (i.e., Levels 1 to 3) of Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DOK) model. Consistent with its mission as a vehicle to demonstrate college-and-career readiness, the GED® test places broad emphasis on the more complex demands presented at Levels 2 and 3. DOK levels equate with varying degrees of complexity (as opposed to difficulty), and ultimately describe the type of thinking required by a task – not whether the task is hard or easy. For an explanation of what each level of cognitive complexity embraces, please see pg. 169.

167

GED® Assessment Targets for the Social Studies Practice Test Question #

GED® Assessment Targets*

Webb’s DOK Level of    Complexity**

Question #

GED® Assessment Targets*

Webb’s DOK Level of    Complexity**

1

SSP.1.a, CG.d.1

1

26

SSP.1.b, SSP.10.a

3

2

CG.d.2

1

27

E.e.3

1

3

SSP.4.a

1

28

E.e.3

3

4

E.d.8

2

29

CG.d.1

2

5

SSP.10.a, USH.c.1

2

30

SSP.4.a

1

6

SSP.10.a, USH.c.1

2

31

SSP.4.a

1

7

SSP.10.c

3

32

G.c.1

1

8

SSP.1.a, SSP.6.b, USH.c.2

2

33

SSP.1.b, SSP.6.b, SSP.10.a

1

9

SSP.1.b, USH.b.6, USH.b.7

2

34

SSP.6.b, SSP.10.a

1

35

SSP.6.a, SSP.6.b

2

10

SSP.1.a, USH.b.6, USH.b.7

2

36

SSP.1.a

1

11

SSP.1.a, SSP.6.b

2

37

SSP.6.c

3

12

SSP.1.a, CG.c.3, CG.c.4

2

38

SSP.6.b

1

13

SSP.4.a

1

39

SSP.6.b, CG.c.6

1

14

SSP.10.a, G.d.3

1

40

SSP.4.a

1

15

SSP.10.a, G.d.1

2

41

SSP.6.b, SSP.10.a, USH.c.1

1

16

SSP.10.a, G.d.1

1

42

2

17

SSP.3.a, SSP.3.c, USH.b.4

2

SSP.7.b, SSP.10.a, USH.c.1

43

SSP.2.b, USH.b.4

2

18

SSP.4.a

1

44

SSP.3.d, USH.b.4

2

19

SSP.3.b

1

45

SSP.2.b, USH.d.2

1

20

G.b.4

1

46

USH.d.2

1

21

G.c.3

1

47

USH.d.2

1

22

CG.c.1, USH.b.4

2

48

USH.g.8

2

23

CG.c.1

1

49

SSP.1.a

1

24

SSP.1.b

1

50

CG.b.8, CG.d.2

1

25

SSP.6.a, SSP.10.a

2

*For additional information regarding GED® Assessment Targets, go to www.gedtestingservice.com/educators/home.

168

**GED® test items require test-takers to deal with three of the four levels (i.e., Levels 1 to 3) of Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DOK) model. Consistent with its mission as a vehicle to demonstrate college-and-career readiness, the GED® test places broad emphasis on the more complex demands presented at Levels 2 and 3. DOK levels equate with varying degrees of complexity (as opposed to difficulty), and ultimately describe the type of thinking required by a task – not whether the task is hard or easy. For an explanation of what each level of cognitive complexity embraces, please see pg. 169.

How Webb’s Depth of Knowledge Applies to the GED ® Test Here’s a brief explanation of how Webb’s Depth of Knowledge model relates to what GED® test items at each of the three levels found on the test require of the test-taker: • DOK Level 1: Recall of information (e.g., a fact, definition, term, or carrying out a simple process or procedure). Answering a Level 1 test item can involve following a simple, well-known procedure or formula. The hallmark of a Level 1 item is that you either know it or you don’t; there’s nothing to “figure out.” • DOK Level 2: Use of conceptual knowledge. Answering a Level 2 test item may involve summarizing information from a text, explaining cause-effect, predicting a logical outcome, classifying geometric figures, or pinpointing relevant information from a graphic to solve a problem requiring multiple steps. • DOK Level 3: Strategic thinking. Answering a Level 3 test item may require marshalling evidence and dealing with abstractions; an item at this level often has more than one possible answer and requires test-takers to justify their response. Bear in mind that Webb’s DOK does not describe difficulty level but rather each test item’s level of cognitive complexity. Reference tables for each REA practice test in this online test booklet can be found on pages 164-165 (Reasoning through Language Arts), 166 (Mathematical Reasoning), 167 (Science), and 168 (Social Studies) of this PDF.

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Total Solution for the GED Test - REA

100 Total Solution for the GED ® ALIGNE F or t h e D % 20D 1T4est GE ® Test Laurie Callihan, Ph.D. Stacey Kiggins, M.S. Lisa Gail Mullins...

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